We cannot exclude this possibility, but three aspects of our resu

We cannot exclude this possibility, but three aspects of our results are inconsistent with an explanation based on attention. First, attention typically increases neuronal activity (Desimone and Duncan, 1995, Kastner and Ungerleider, 2000, Reynolds and Chelazzi, 2004, Reynolds and Heeger, 2009 and Treue and Maunsell, 1999), but our analysis shows that mean responses were not significantly different between naive and trained animals (Figure 3). Second, the learn more reduction in noise correlation with increased attention was also accompanied by decreased neuronal

variability (Fano factor, Cohen and Maunsell, 2009 and Mitchell et al., 2009). However, we did not find a significant difference in Fano factor between naive and trained animals. Finally, there was no difference in noise correlation between the fixation and discrimination tasks for a subset of pairs of neurons that were recorded during both tasks (Figure S6). This result

is consistent with an earlier study in which noise correlations Obeticholic Acid datasheet in area MT were found to be similar during a motion discrimination task and a visual fixation task (Zohary et al., 1994b). Any fluctuation in common inputs could cause correlated variability among target neurons. It is thus possible that training decreases the shared, common input to area MSTd, likely on a long timescale during learning (Chowdhury and DeAngelis, 2008). The effect of training on neural circuitry may have occurred at two levels. First, training may have altered the feed-forward sensory input to MSTd from other cortical and subcortical areas, without changing the average tuning properties of single neurons (Jenkins et al., 1990, Recanzone et al., 1993 and Weinberger, 1993). Second, Tolmetin training may have altered feedback connections to MSTd, including feedback from decision circuitry. Our results are consistent

with recent findings that perceptual learning does not substantially alter sensory cortical representations, but rather sculpts the decoding of sensory signals by decision circuitry (Dosher and Lu, 1999 and Law and Gold, 2008). If training alters the read out of heading signals from MSTd, this, in turn, may modify the shared feedback to MSTd neurons from downstream circuitry. It is currently not possible to discern which of these training-related changes contributes most to the reduction in correlated noise that we have observed. Although our data suggest that learning does not alter the sensory representation of heading in a manner that could account for the improvement in behavioral sensitivity with training, it is important to note that we cannot rule out the possibility that training altered the heading tuning and sensitivity of neurons in other brain areas that may also be involved in heading perception, such as area VIP (Zhang and Britten, 2011).

, 2005 and Ge et al , 2002), and the newly identified Nepro, whic

, 2005 and Ge et al., 2002), and the newly identified Nepro, which appears to act downstream of Notch to inhibit neurogenesis early selleck in neocortical development (Muroyama and Saito, 2009). Though direct lateral inhibition is a

well-established model, in many instances, it more than likely cannot account for refining the Delta-Notch signaling pattern during development. Interestingly, it was reported in Drosophila neural development that dynamic filopodia can contact nonneighboring cells, allowing intermittent Delta-Notch signaling to regulate bristle spacing and organization ( Cohen et al., 2010). Such filopodia provide a means for individual cells to influence cohorts of nearby cells, and could permit integration of broader signaling trends across a tissue, rather than have everything be

determined on a neighboring cell-by-cell basis. Though such filopodial Notch signaling has yet to be observed in other organisms, it will be important to determine whether vertebrate NSCs use a similar means of intermittent Notch-Delta signaling, and how such a cellular mechanism could be employed to regulate and refine neural cell fate specification. In addition to the core signaling elements, Notch pathway modulators have been characterized to varying extents, including Numb (Zhong et al., 1996), Numblike (Numbl) (Zhong et al., 1997), and Dx (Eiraku et al., 2005, Patten et al., 2006, Sestan et al., 1999 and Yamamoto et al., 2001). Unfortunately, after many years of study, how these components regulate the Notch cascade in the developing mammalian nervous MK0683 in vivo system is not entirely clear. Numb and Numblike can antagonize Notch signaling (Sestan et al., 1999 and Shen et al., 2002), but disruption of these proteins in mice has not been easily reconciled with such

a function, because old some studies have suggested that Numb promotes progenitor character, while others suggest it promotes neurogenesis (Li et al., 2003, Petersen et al., 2002, Petersen et al., 2004, Petersen et al., 2006 and Rasin et al., 2007). Recent work has provided potential insight into the regulation of Numb by the Golgi-associated protein ACBD3 (Zhou et al., 2007). The model presented suggests that during mitosis and Golgi fragmentation, ACBD3 is released into the cytosol where it can interact with asymmetrically localized Numb to promote progenitor character in the daughter cell that contains Numb. However, once newly generated neurons become postmitotic, ACBD3 is retained in the Golgi, and Numb/Numbl instead antagonize Notch to permit neuronal maturation. The importance of regulating Notch signaling in differentiating neurons is supported by studies that found that Notch can influence dendritic arborization (see below) (Berezovska et al., 1999, Redmond et al., 2000 and Sestan et al., 1999) and axonal guidance (Giniger, 1998, Le Gall et al., 2008 and Song and Giniger, 2011).

, 2007, Mateizel et al , 2006 and Mateizel et al , 2010) This sc

, 2007, Mateizel et al., 2006 and Mateizel et al., 2010). This scarcity of PGD stem cell lines is partly due to the small number of embryos discarded after PGD and to the fact that PGD is only routinely carried out for a select number of monogenic neurological disorders. Alternatively, disease-causing mutations can be introduced into human ES cell lines by homologous recombination (Urbach et al., 2004). Unfortunately, disease-specific PGD embryos, as a resource, are limited in number and producing disease-specific ES cell lines by homologous recombination

is highly inefficient. In addition, in both cases, these approaches do not allow for see more the modeling of sporadic disease or for correlations to be made this website between in vitro cellular phenotypes and clinical observations made over the lifetime of the patient. Another approach for using hES cell lines for disease modeling is to genetically modify them to express a disease-causing transgene using cell-type-specific promoters (Karumbayaram et al., 2009a). However, this approach would again only be useful

for modeling monogenic diseases caused by highly penetrant mutations and not for modeling complex disorders for which genetic determinants are either unknown or poorly understood. In contrast, the “reprogramming” of somatic cells allows the production of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, which possess all of the salient characteristics of ES cells. These iPS cells can be generated using readily accessible tissue from patients with any condition. The obvious advantage of such an approach is that patient-specific first iPS cells carry the precise genetic variants, both known and unknown, that contributed to disease, residing in the context of the patient’s own genetic background. Thus, any cellular phenotypes

observed could be correlated with clinical benchmarks such as rate of disease progression. Additionally, patient-specific iPS cells may eventually serve as a customizable resource for personalized regenerative medicine, drug testing, and predictive toxicology studies. Since the initial derivations of patient-specific iPS cell lines (Dimos et al., 2008 and Park et al., 2008a), there has been a dramatic expansion in the number of diseases for which cell lines have now been created (Table 1). The approach of induced pluripotency by defined factors has emerged as an alternative method for the derivation of human pluripotent stem cells that overcomes many of the limitations associated with the derivation and manipulation of hES cells. In 2006, Shinya Yamanaka’s group demonstrated that the combined ectopic expression of the transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc was sufficient to reprogram mouse fibroblasts into what were termed induced pluripotent stem cells, or simply iPS cells ( Takahashi and Yamanaka, 2006).

We have defined five distinct classes of response to drifting

We have defined five distinct classes of response to drifting

bars: three subtypes of direction selective and two subtypes of orientation selective. The number of zebrafish direction-selective retinal subtypes and their preferred directions of motion match those identified in electrophysiological studies of adult goldfish (Maximov et al., 2005) and also those of the on-direction-selective ganglion cells (On-DSGCs) that project to the nuclei of the accessory optic system (AOS) in mammals (Yonehara et al., 2009). Our data therefore suggest that, like the AOS of mammals, the zebrafish tectum may play a role in stabilizing the retinal image during self-motion. Indeed, tectal ablations in zebrafish have been shown to alter, although not eliminate, the Fulvestrant cell line optokinetic response by reducing the frequency of saccades (Roeser and Baier, 2003). Our population analysis of direction-selective cells in zebrafish extends the goldfish studies by providing an estimate of the relative proportions of each response subtype targeting the tectum: responses to bars moving Quisinostat concentration in the tail-to-head direction (265°)

dominate the direction-selective input, while responses to horizontal bars moving along the vertical axis dominate the orientation-selective input. Importantly, by generating parametric response maps, we were also able to examine in detail the spatial distribution of all subtypes within the tectal neuropil. This shows clear laminar segregation in the distribution of direction- and orientation-selective inputs within SFGS of the tectal neuropil. Superficially Resminostat this may not seem surprising

given that individual RGC axons terminate within single laminae in the zebrafish tectum (Xiao and Baier, 2007; Xiao et al., 2011)—a conclusion echoed in morphological studies of the mammalian superior colliculus (Huberman et al., 2009; Kay et al., 2011; Kim et al., 2010). However, we find that the three direction-selective subtypes terminate in only two discrete layers within the most superficial portion of SFGS. Such tight laminar organization is not found for orientation-selective input, which is found throughout SFGS with no clear laminar segregation between subtypes. Does this suggest multiple classes of orientation-selective RGCs? Multiple subclasses have recently been demonstrated in a previously reported single functional class of ON-OFF direction-selective RGC tuned to posterior motion. The subclasses differ in their physiology, morphology, and, most pertinently, in the pattern of their axonal projections to the superior colliculus (Rivlin-Etzion et al., 2011). The composite parametric maps we have generated also reveal biases within direction- and orientation-selective domains. Orientation-selective inputs tuned to bars moving along the vertical and horizontal axes are concentrated in posterior and anterior tectum, respectively.

Tsan Xiao for providing the GB1 vector (NIAID/NIH), Dr Heinz Arn

Tsan Xiao for providing the GB1 vector (NIAID/NIH), Dr. Heinz Arnheiter (NINDS/NIH) for provocative discussions and critical reading of the manuscript. This work is supported by NIMH Division of Intramural Research Programs. “
“Understanding how cognitive functions map onto neural circuits is a fundamental goal of neuroscience. For most cognitive operations this goal is not within reach, but in rodent spatial cognition there have been three impressive advances. First, physiological studies

on hippocampal and parahippocampal neurons have revealed rich and abstract representations of space. In particular, earlier studies identified place cells in the hippocampus (O’Keefe and Dostrovsky, 1971) and head-direction cells in the anterior thalamus (Taube and Muller, 1998) and the PFT�� in vitro presubiculum (Taube et al., 1990a and Taube et al., 1990b; for a review, see Taube, 2007). Moreover, in the medial entorhinal cortex, grid cells with tessellating spatial discharges (Hafting et al., 2005), head-direction cells (Sargolini et al., 2006), and border cells (Solstad et al., 2008) have been described. Second, the large-scale anatomy of the hippocampal and parahippocampal regions is well described (van Strien et al., 2009 and Suzuki and Amaral,

2004). Superficial entorhinal layers project to the Galunisertib mouse hippocampal formation, whereas deep layers receive hippocampal feedback (van Strien et al., 2009). Neuronal

morphologies of entorhinal cortex Idoxuridine have been carefully characterized (Lingenhöhl and Finch, 1991, Klink and Alonso, 1997, Witter and Amaral, 2004 and Quilichini et al., 2010). The architecture of medial entorhinal cortex is characterized by clusters of neurons in cytochrome oxidase-rich patches in layer 2 (Klingler, 1948, Hevner and Wong-Riley, 1992 and Solodkin and Van Hoesen, 1996). Third, the cognitive map theory is a powerful conceptual framework relating spatial cognition to the hippocampus (O’Keefe and Nadel, 1978) and parahippocampal regions (O’Keefe and Burgess, 2005). Medial entorhinal cortex is a major input-output structure of the hippocampus (Burwell, 2000 and Suzuki and Amaral, 2004). The coexistence of grid, head-direction, and border cells suggested that the entorhinal network might be able to integrate these signals to compute an updated metric representation of position in space (Sargolini et al., 2006, Witter and Moser, 2006, Moser and Moser, 2008 and Derdikman and Moser, 2010). Despite the key role of medial entorhinal cortex in rodent spatial cognition, we still lack a mechanistic understanding of how individual neurons contribute to spatial representations. Entorhinal microcircuits remained poorly defined because extracellular recordings fail to identify the recorded neuronal elements (Chorev et al., 2009).

“It is well established that the developing nervous system

“It is well established that the developing nervous system requires the combined activities of synapse S3I-201 ic50 formation and elimination (Goda and Davis, 2003 and Luo and O’Leary, 2005), and there is increasing evidence that this is also true for the maintenance of mature neural circuitry (Holtmaat and Svoboda, 2009 and Xu et al., 2009). The molecular mechanisms that control synapse formation have been studied extensively and include modulation of the neuronal cytoskeleton, target recognition, synapse assembly, and stabilization (Luo, 2002, Goda and Davis, 2003 and Datwani et al., 2009). The opposing mechanisms that disassemble synaptic connections are beginning to emerge and include modulation

of growth factor signaling, the submembranous spectrin/ankyrin skeleton, cell adhesion and cellular mechanisms that dismantle the neuronal membrane (Luo and O’Leary, 2005, Nikolaev et al., 2009, Koch et al., 2008, Pielage et al., 2005, Pielage et al., 2008, Watts et al., 2003 and Massaro et al., 2009). In general these different molecular mechanisms are studied in isolation. Yet it is also clear that the phenomena

of synapse formation and retraction can coexist within the terminals of single neurons (Walsh and Lichtman, 2003). The mechanisms that serve to balance synapse stabilization and elimination within a neuron to achieve and maintain precise patterns of neural connectivity remain unknown. To date, relatively few molecular mechanisms have MDV3100 been uncovered that participate in both synapse formation and elimination. Any such signaling system might reasonably be a point of control to balance synapse growth and elimination. Growth factor signaling is a type of global regulation that coordinates synapse formation and elimination with neuronal size (Huang and Reichardt, 2001). However, much less is known about how a balance between synapse stability and growth might be organized and executed locally within a nerve terminal. Potential candidates include adaptive immune signaling

(Datwani et al., 2009) and control of cell adhesion. Remarkably, local regulators of the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons over capable of balancing growth and elimination have yet to be clearly defined. Here, we provide evidence that the actin-capping, spectrin-binding protein Adducin participates in both actin dependent synaptic growth and synapse stabilization. As such, Adducin may serve to coordinate these opposing activities that normally specify the shape, extent, and stability of the presynaptic terminal. The vertebrate genome encodes the three closely related adducin genes α-adducin, β-adducin, and γ-adducin that form tetramers composed of either α/β- or α/γ-heterodimers ( Matsuoka et al., 2000). Adducin is a key protein involved in the assembly of the sub-membranous Spectrin-actin network ( Bennett and Baines, 2001).

In DIII, a hydrophilic Thr is also found next to the second outer

In DIII, a hydrophilic Thr is also found next to the second outermost S4-positive residue (R2). The two hydrophilic residues are not unique to Nav1.4 as they are remarkably well conserved

this website across eukaryotic phyla (Figure S2). To evaluate the role of these amino acids, we sought to create a “slow Nav channel” by substituting the hydrophilic residues in DI–DIII of Nav1.4 for Ile (S2) and Val (S4) (Figure 2B). Because two hydrophilic residues are present in the S4 in DIII (S4-DIII), S1120 next to K1, and T1123 next to R2 (Figures 2A and S2), we constructed three mutants: NaSlo1 (which conserves T1123), NaSlo2 (which conserves S1120), and NaSlo3 (which replaces both residues by Val). Then, we engineered a “fast Kv channel” by substituting the homologous hydrophobic residues in the slow VSs of the Shaker Galunisertib datasheet Kv channel (I287 in S2 and V363 in S4) by Thr. We named it Shaker-I287T/V363T (Figure 2B). All NaSlo mutants produced a significant slowing down of the time constant of activating sodium currents (see Figure S1 for the fitting procedure) upon moderate depolarizing pulses from −45 mV to −20 mV (Figures 2C and 2D). The activation kinetics (τ) of the VS movement in the NaSlo1 and Shaker-I287T/V363T mutants were further determined using

activation gating current recordings (Figure 2E) and plotted as a function of the membrane potential (Figure 2F). The τ versus voltage (V) (τ-V) curve for the NaSlo1 channel is displaced toward more negative voltages compared to the other tested channels (Figure 2F, blue triangles), presumably because the NaSlo1 mutations produce a negative shift of the charge (Q) versus V (Q-V) curve (Figure S3A,

blue symbols). Nevertheless, the slowest value for the time constant of gating currents (τmax) is similar between NaSlo1 and wild-type (WT) Shaker and between the Shaker-I287T/V363T and WT Nav1.4, respectively (Figures 2F and 2G). There was no statistical difference of the mean values of τmax between the Shaker-I287T/V363T and WT Nav1.4 (p value = 0.32597, n = 6) and between NaSlo1 and WT Shaker (p value = 0.90888, n = 6). Interestingly, in the NaSlo1 channel, the presence of the β1 subunit speeds up τmax (about 2.5-fold) quite similarly to WT Nav1.4 channel (about Casein kinase 1 2-fold), thus suggesting that the speed-control residues do not functionally interact with the β1 subunit. In Shaker channels, the mutations I287T-V363T also accelerate ionic current kinetics but they do so more effectively for pore closure than for pore opening (Figures S3C and S3D). This difference could be due to the fact that the I287T-V363T mutations may have little or no effect on the late concerted VS transition that rate limits pore opening (Smith-Maxwell et al., 1998) but does not rate limit pore closure (Labro et al., 2012).

, 1998) The enhanced RhoA degradation may thus directly contribu

, 1998). The enhanced RhoA degradation may thus directly contributes to the accelerated neurite growth associated with axon formation. The absence of overt developmental defect in Smurf1 knockout mice suggests compensation by other molecules or pathways (Yamashita et al., 2005). Smurf2 represents one of the candidates that might be able to take the place of Smurf1 to regulate degradation of RhoA, when Smurf2 is relieved from the auto-inhibitory C2-HECT interaction (Wiesner et al., 2007). Unlike that found in Smurf1 or Smurf2 knockout mice, the Smurf1 and

Smurf2 double-knockout mice displayed planar cell polarity defects and severe abnormality of neural development, check details including the failure of neural tube closure (Narimatsu et al., 2009). Since these two ligases are not likely to share all of their targets, Smurf2 may act on another polarity-related protein that compensates Smurf1 deficiency, resulting in functional overlap in neuronal polarization between these two closely related Smurf proteins. Although early neural development defects prevented Fulvestrant in vitro the functional study of Smurfs in double-knockout mice, recent studies of

cultured hippocampal neurons suggests the involvement of Smurf2 in neuronal polarization through its interaction with polarity modulator Par3 and Rap1B (Schwamborn et al., 2007a and Schwamborn et al., 2007b). It remains unclear whether Smurf2 activity itself is regulated by polarizing factors during axon initiation and how Smurf1 and Smurf2 work in concert to properly regulate the degradation of their respective substrates. science The severe cell migration defect caused by Smurf1-shRNA alone (Figure S3B) is probably due to incomplete activation of compensatory mechanisms in transfected neurons and thus is unable to overcome the growth-inhibition effect of reduced Smurf1 expression. Importantly, we showed that Smurf1 regulation by BDNF and db-cAMP results in dual effects—it not only stabilizes a polarity-promoting protein Par6, but also selectively enhances the degradation of growth-inhibiting

RhoA. Thus, in addition to the enhanced stability of axon determinants, enhanced degradation of negative regulator(s) may also be important during axon formation. Furthermore, other substrates of Smurf1, such as talin head domain and hPEM-2 (a GEF for cdc42) and those involving in dynamic of focal adhesion (Huang et al., 2009 and Yamaguchi et al., 2008), could also contribute to axon formation regulated by Smurf1. Finally, we note that selective local protein degradation can also be achieved by modulating UPS components other than E3 ligase or by asymmetric distribution of proteasomes that are structurally and functionally heterogeneous, as shown in the liver cell (Palmer et al., 1996). Localized accumulation of axon determinants could also be achieved by asymmetric modulation of protein synthesis rather than protein degradation.

These findings establish an essential role for glycosylated dystr

These findings establish an essential role for glycosylated dystroglycan in regulating axon guidance at the ventral midline of the spinal cord in vivo. The commissural axon guidance phenotypes observed in the B3gnt1, ISPD and dystroglycan mutants raised the possibility that dystroglycan binds to axon guidance cues within the floor plate to regulate their function. Previous studies have identified a number of ligands that bind directly to dystroglycan in a glycosylation-dependent manner, including laminin, agrin, perlecan, neurexin, and pikachurin ( Gee et al., 1994; Sato et al., 2008; Sugita et al., 2001; Talts et al., 1999). A common feature of these ligands

is the presence of a laminin G (LG) domain that mediates their association with carbohydrate moieties present on glycosylated dystroglycan. Intriguingly, of the axon guidance cues known to be expressed Akt inhibitor selleck chemicals in the floor plate, Slits contain an LG domain within their C-terminal regions. Thus, the overlapping expression patterns of dystroglycan and Slits in the floor plate,

the similarities in axon guidance phenotypes observed in the B3gnt1, ISPD, dystroglycan, and Slit/Robo mutants, and the presence of an LG domain in the Slit C terminus, led us to hypothesize that glycosylated dystroglycan binds directly to Slits to regulate their function. We first asked whether dystroglycan can bind directly to the C-terminal region of Slit, which harbors the LG domain, using an in vitro COS7 cell-binding assay. We generated constructs in which alkaline phosphatase (AP) is fused to either the Robo-binding leucine rich repeat domain 2 of Slit2 (AP-LRR) or the C-terminal region containing the LG domain of Slit2 (AP-Cterm). As expected, COS7 cells

MTMR9 transfected with a construct encoding full-length Robo-1 specifically bind to AP-LRR, but not to AP-Cterm or AP alone (Figure 6A, data not shown). Importantly, COS7 cells expressing full-length dystroglycan showed robust binding to AP-Cterm but not to AP-LRR or AP alone. These findings demonstrate that dystroglycan is capable of binding to the Slit C-terminal domain. To further test direct binding between dystroglycan and Slit, we generated an Fc-dystroglycan protein secreted from COS7 cells and determined whether it is capable of direct association with the different domains of Slit. We find that while Fc-dystroglycan fails to bind to AP-LRR, it does bind to AP-Cterm (Figure 6B). We next asked whether the Slit C-terminal fragment is able to bind to endogenous dystroglycan. Dystroglycan enriched membrane fractions isolated by WGA precipitation from mouse brain lysates were incubated with either AP-LRR or AP-Cterm. Indeed, the Slit C-terminal fragment, but not the Slit LRR, is able to associate with endogenous dystroglycan (Figure 6C). Previous studies indicate that the binding of laminin LG domains to dystroglycan requires a basic patch surrounding a Ca2+ binding site (Harrison et al., 2007).

However, it is also important to consider the effects on performa

However, it is also important to consider the effects on performance (i.e., ball velocity and accuracy). This is because compliance from coaches, pitchers, and parents is one of the key factors in successful implementation of any intervention program. While potential effects of an selleck intervention program on injury prevention would appeal to most participants, programs that compromise performance would be met

with strong resistance and poor compliance from coaches and athletes. On the other hand, programs that help prevent injury and also improve performance will likely ensure high compliance from coaches, parents, and players, which may help achieve the primary goal of preventing injuries. There is some evidence to suggest that production of high ball velocity causes high joint loading. Greater maximal shoulder external rotation angle during pitching and higher shoulder and elbow distraction forces have been linked to both higher ball velocity and higher shoulder and elbow joint moments.27, 29, 116 and 117 In a prospective study, Bushnell et al.118 demonstrated that pitchers with higher ball velocity may be more susceptible to sustaining elbow injuries. However, it needs

to be noted that only 23 pitchers were included in this analysis, which limits the generalizability of this observation. On the other hand, there is also evidence Alpelisib cell line to suggest that production of higher ball velocity does not necessarily incur high joint loads. In a study by Werner et al.117 that investigated biomechanical Dichloromethane dehalogenase predictors of ball speed, none of the kinetic variables were found to be predictive of ball speed. In a study by Wight et al.,31 pitchers who demonstrated a more closed pelvis experienced higher shoulder and elbow joint loading compared to pitchers who demonstrated more open pelvis. However, ball velocity was similar between groups. In the previously mentioned study by Aguinaldo et al.,26 professional pitchers who presumably (ball speed was not reported in the study) pitched faster than high school and collegiate pitchers,59 did so while experiencing

lower absolute and normalized shoulder external rotation moments. Additionally, several kinematic variables (e.g., greater peak ground reaction force during a push-off,119 greater knee flexion at stride foot contact,117 greater knee extension angle and velocity at ball release,117 and 120 and forward trunk tilt angle at ball release116, 117 and 120) have been linked to higher ball velocity, but not to increased joint loading. This evidence indicates that reduction of joint loading can be achieved without compromising performance. Verbal instruction is one of the most common ways to modify specific skill components in pitching. In order for the verbal instruction to be effective, quantity of instruction and location of attentional focus directed by the instruction needs to be considered.