In the wild-type group of children, 36 children of 711 (5 1%) had

In the wild-type group of children, 36 children of 711 (5.1%) had malaria in which case only six (0.84%) had single re-infections (twice) and the remaining 30 children (4.2%) had only one malaria attack. Our results indicate that the prevalence of c.264T>G CD36 mutation is very low in northern

Tanzania. These results are in line with other studies previously conducted in different parts of the world. CD36 deficiency has been found to occur in prevalence rates in 2% of Gambia, 2.1% of Makran, Pakistan, 4.5% of northern eastern Bantu-Kenya [22], 2.3% in Muheza, Tanzania [23] but in <0.3% of Americans of European descent [24]. Higher prevalence of CD36 find more deficiency in other parts of the world (9% in the coastal region of Kenya, and 26% in Nigeria) might indicate recent origin for the allele in those regions with subsequent migration. The protection by acquired immunity after malaria vaccination is the major drive for its development. Antibodies, particularly cytophilic IgG subclasses, with specificity for asexual blood stage antigens of P. falciparum, are thought to play an important role in acquired immunity to malaria. Although repeated blood stage infections induce antibodies considered offering the main disease protection, their essential functions have remained speculative in the presence of many factors that commonly modulate host immune responses to asexual stages antigens of P. falciparum. Host genetic variation

and parasite heterogeneity are among them. We stratified our data to analyse the influence of the studied mutation on acquisition of anti-MSP-119 antibodies and incidence of malaria. Homozygous and heterozygous children were grouped FGFR inhibitor together as carriers and analysed against normal (wild-type) children. MSP-119 seropositivity was found to increase from the baseline survey to the survey after 1 year in both categories. A similar trend was observed for mean IgG levels which also increased from baseline to final sampling, in both carrier and normal children. We observed a higher malaria incidence in the carrier group in which 19 of 36 (52.8%) had malaria at least once, against 36 of 711 (5.1%) in the wild-type group. Our results PAK6 show

that the presence of the mutation that causes CD36 deficiency suppresses immune responsiveness to MSP-119, despite exposure to the P. falciparum antigens. While there was a clear increase in MSP-119 seropositivity in the normal and heterozygous children, per cent seropositivity to MSP-119 in CD36 deficient children did not change after 12 months of follow-up. The same trend was observed when CD36 deficient and heterozygous children were combined and compared against normal children. Our findings present an interesting observation of the role played by one of the molecules expressed on the surface of immune cells on anti-malaria antibody acquisition. CD36 is popularly known for its roles in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and also its signal transducing functions in the body.

Please note: Wiley-Blackwell are not responsible for the content

Please note: Wiley-Blackwell are not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting materials supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing material) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article. “
“Cockroaches have been identified as one of the major indoor allergens inducing perennial rhinitis and asthma. Per a 1s are a group of the major allergens from American cockroach. Although Per a 1s are major allergens from American cockroach, factors

contributing to the allergenicity of Per a 1s are still poorly defined. To investigate the effects of Per a 1s on the expression Regorafenib price of PARs and the release of proinflammatory cytokines from mast cells. Per a 1.0101 and Per a 1.0104 were cloned from American cockroach and then expressed in VX-809 Eschericia coli. The purified allergens were used to stimulate P815 mast cells, and the expression of protease-activated receptors (PARs) was determined by real-time RT-PCR and flow cytometry. The levels of IL-4 and IL-13 in culture

media were detected with ELISA. Sera from 80 and 77.3% of cockroach allergy patients reacted to recombinant Per a (rPer a) 1.0101 and rPer a 1.0104, confirming they are major allergens. Both rPer a 1.0101 and rPer a 1.0104 had no enzymatic activity, but rPer a 1.0101 upregulated the expression of PAR-1 and PAR-2, and rPer a 1.0104 enhanced OSBPL9 the expression of PAR-1 and PAR-4 proteins. Both recombinant allergens were able to increase the release of IL-4 and IL-13 from P815 mast cells. This is the first study aiming to investigate functions of group 1 allergens of American cockroach. rPer a 1.0101 and rPer a 1.0104 have the capacity to upregulate

the expression of PARs and to enhance Th2 cytokine production in mast cells. Cockroach allergens have been identified as one of the major indoor allergens, which induce IgE-mediated allergic respiratory illness such as perennial rhinitis and asthma. Sensitization to cockroaches is well recognized in human beings throughout the world. The two most common domiciliary species associated with allergic diseases are the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) and German cockroach (Blattella germanica) [1]. Three different types of major allergens have been identified from American cockroach, named Per a 1, Per a 3 and Per a 7 [2]. Per a 1 is a group of major allergens consisting of five members, Per a 1.0101, Per a 1.0102, Per a 1.0103, Per a 1.0104, Per a 1.0105 and Per a 1.02, known as isoallergens [3]. Among them, Per a 1.0101 showed 79.2% and 94% amino acid sequence identity with Per a 1.0104 and Per a 1.0102, respectively [4]. There is no cysteine and potential N-glycosylation site in Per a 1 molecules [3].

The rapid iNKT cell response to sensitization is at least partial

The rapid iNKT cell response to sensitization is at least partially because of rapidly changing characteristics of stimulatory hepatic lipids. An alternate, but not mutually exclusive, hypothesis is that the expression level of CD1d increases, thereby enabling enhanced iNKT cell activation. Interaction with hepatocytes via CD1d is thought to promote IL-4 secretion by iNKT cells [28]. Using flow cytometry, we examined whether the expression level of CD1d by

hepatocytes in wild-type BALB/c mice changes 1 h after sensitization. (Examination at 30 min was not possible for technical reasons.) A non-significant increase in the hepatocyte CD1d expression level was observed following skin sensitization (Fig. 3). The actual CD1d increase may be even less when considering that small numbers of contaminating APC (Kupffer cells or dendritic cells) may remain attached to the hepatocytes. Furthermore, given that hepatocytes constitute approximately DNA Synthesis inhibitor 10% of CD1d-expressing LMNC, it is difficult

to draw mechanistic conclusions. Still, a role of hepatocytes in iNKT cell activation cannot BMS-907351 mw be excluded entirely. The non-significant increase in CD1d expression by hepatic APCs may contribute to iNKT cell activation. In addition, the levels seen here may represent one point along a down-trending slope that peaked earlier. CD1d appears essential to iNKT cell activation, but whether the critical molecular interaction in our model occurs in vitro (during incubation of iNKT cells with lipids) or in vivo (following adoptive cell transfer) remained unclear. To investigate the importance of endogenous CD1d expression, we compared CS reactions between Jα18−/− and CD1d−/− mice after adoptive transfer of activated wild-type iNKT cells into each group. Both knockout strains are deficient in iNKT cells: Jα18 is a key component of the invariant TCR, while CD1d is essential for the development and activation of iNKT cells [29]. In addition, CD1d−/− mice are universally deficient in the CD1d molecule and therefore unable to mediate iNKT cell interactions even after adoptive cell transfer [30]. We incubated

naïve wild-type iNKT cells with stimulatory lipids Selleck Cisplatin isolated from contact-sensitized mice, as shown earlier. We then transferred these activated iNKT cells into sensitized Jα18−/− and CD1d−/− mice and subsequently challenged their ears. CS was reconstituted in both strains, and the degree of reconstitution was nearly equivalent (Groups C and F, Fig. 4A). If endogenous iNKT cell interactions had been essential, then CS would have been seen in the Jα18−/− group but not in the CD1d−/− group. Rather, it appears that endogenous cellular interactions including hepatocyte–iNKT interactions are not essential. In our model, iNKT cell activation occurs at the in vitro stage in the context of other LMNC. Alternatively, in vivo cellular interactions involving different receptors may be at play.

Strains lacking either of these two mediators

have been s

Strains lacking either of these two mediators

have been shown to be more sensitive to pro-oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide, menadione and methyl viologen or paraquat (7, 9), suggesting that oxyR and rpoS are essential for survival and growth under oxidative conditions. Similar results have been found in other bacterial species and the role of OxyR in the response to oxidative stress is well established. selleck For example, oxyR mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are hypersensitive to pro-oxidants including H2O2 and paraquat (16) while E. coli with deletions of oxyR are hypersensitive to hydrogen peroxide and have increased rates of spontaneous mutation during aerobic growth (17). Similarly, oxyR mutants of Brucella abortus, Erwinia carotovora and Xanthomonas campestris, all show increased sensitivity to pro-oxidants (17–20). Negative regulation of oxyR by RpoS has been reported in E. coli (21). In particular the degree of β-galactosidase expression from a single-copy oxyR::lacZ fusion in a RpoS-defective strain has been shown to be higher than in its parental strain as the cells enter into, and remain in, the stationary phase growth (21). Additionally, increased expression of RpoS prevents the normal expression of oxyR (21). However, in contrast to this,

Schellhorn observed a significant reduction in oxyR expression in an E. coli rpoS::Tn10 mutant (22), a result supported by our own observations with B. pseudomallei in AZD4547 which PAK6 low amounts of CAT activity were observed in oxyR::CAT/rpoS−, which contains a chromosomal oxyR::CAT fusion and is null for rpoS. More significantly, isogenic replacement of RpoS in strain oxyR::CAT/rpoS−/RpoS restored oxyR::CAT expression to the extent seen in the parental strain (oxyR::CAT), suggesting that RpoS acts as a positive regulator of oxyR transcription in

B. pseudomallei. Three genes have been shown to be under transcriptional control of OxyR, namely dpsA (23), katG (24) and gorA (25). The expression pattern of katG during growth of B. pseudomallei has been previously examined using a chromosomal katG::CAT fusion as a reporter. CAT activity was observed to increase during early exponential growth, reaching a maximum value in the early stationary phase growth, after which it declined in the late stationary phase growth (6). Significantly, expression was greater in an oxyR mutant strain during all phases of growth, suggesting that katG expression is negatively regulated by OxyR during normal growth, although further studies showed that katG was positively regulated by OxyR during oxidative stress (6). The negative regulation of katG by oxyR was confirmed in this study, a greater degree of CAT expression being seen in katG::CAT as compared to katG::CAT/oxyR−.

In addition, several studies have found that infants fail to disc

In addition, several studies have found that infants fail to discriminate between small numbers when continuous variables such as surface area and

contour length are controlled. These findings suggest that under some circumstances, infants fail to recruit either the ANS or object file representations for small sets. Here, we used a numerical change detection paradigm to assess 6-month-old infants’ ability to represent small values. In Experiment 1, infants were tested with 1 versus 3, 1 versus 2, and 2 versus 3 dots. Infants successfully discriminated 1 versus 3 and 1 versus 2, but failed with 2 versus 3. In Experiment 2, we tested whether infants could compare small and large values with a 2 versus find more 4 condition. Across both experiments, infants’ performance exhibited ratio dependence, the hallmark of the ANS. Our results indicate that infants can attend to the purely numerical attributes of small sets and that the numerical change

detection paradigm accesses ANS representations in infancy regardless of set size. “
“Forms that are nonlinguistic markers in one language (i.e., “tsk-tsk” in English) may be part of the phoneme inventory—and hence part of words—in another language. In the current paper, we demonstrate that infants’ ability to learn words containing unfamiliar language sounds is influenced by the age and vocabulary size of the infant learner, as well as by cues to the speaker’s referential intent. When referential cues were available, infants at 14 months learned words with non-native speech

4��8C sounds, but at 20 months only those infants selleck with smaller vocabularies succeeded. When no referential cues were present, infants at both 14 and 20 months failed to learn the same words. The implications of the relation between linguistic sophistication and non-native word learning are discussed. “
“Newborn infants preferentially orient to familiar over unfamiliar speech sounds. They are also better at remembering unfamiliar speech sounds for short periods of time if learning and retention occur after a feed than before. It is unknown whether short-term memory for speech is enhanced when the sound is familiar (versus unfamiliar) and, if so, whether the effect is further enhanced by feeding. We used a two-factorial design and randomized infants to one of four groups: prefeed-unfamiliar, prefeed-familiar, postfeed-unfamiliar, and postfeed-familiar. Memory for either familiar or unfamiliar speech (the infant’s mother saying “baby” versus a female stranger saying “beagle”) was assessed using head turning to sound in an habituation–recovery paradigm and a retention delay of 85 sec either before or after a typical milk feed. Memory for the familiar speech–voice was enhanced relative to the unfamiliar speech–voice, expressed by significantly less head turning toward the habituated sound stimulus when it was re-presented after the delay.

, 1998) However, often the rate of positive samples is so high t

, 1998). However, often the rate of positive samples is so high that suspicion has been raised that PCR might produce a high rate of false positive results by detecting contaminant bacteria or remnant bacterial DNA. Therefore, direct microscopic examination of recovered prosthesis components and associated tissue using viability stains and FISH to identify targeted

pathogens has been used to corroborate PCR-based methods (Stoodley et al., 2008, 2011; Gallo et al., 2011). These studies have demonstrated that PCR and FISH show similar trends to presonication and culture and indicate a much higher proportion of orthopedic device failures may have an infectious etiology than currently considered (Costerton et al., 2011). Better guidance outlining sampling protocols for obtaining clinical samples for microbiological testing and how to treat the samples for releasing find more the biofilm bacteria may therefore improve culture outcomes, including sampling of multiple aspirate or effusion samples. Tissue biopsies that

allow histological work-up or homogenization before culture are also more likely to detect biofilm bacteria than swabs, which may miss microorganisms in a niche, encased in a matrix, or within the GSI-IX tissue. Furthermore, multiple or successive biopsies might also reduce the sampling error, taking into account that BAI may be surface-associated or localized. The following samples are therefore recommended in BAI: (1) swabs (e.g. nasal, throat, and genital), (2) liquid samples (e.g. blood, sputum, ear effusion, purulent discharge—particularly from wounds, and synovial fluid), (3) solid samples eltoprazine (native tissue biopsies, e.g. bone fragments or heart valves), and (4) implant samples (e.g. sutures, meshes, catheters, stents, and prostheses). As discussed previously, in some cases, an ultrasonication step may increase sensitivity. Once the sample has been taken and processed, it remains to be seen from blinded clinical studies, which diagnostic samples are best for the determination of a course of treatment, culture, PCR, or

a combination of the both. Culture (plate counts with colony forming units (CFU) to determine viable bacteria) has been shown by many researchers to not necessarily accurately reflect viable bacteria. To assess antimicrobial effects, culture was directly compared in vitro with the bacterial Live/Dead kit, which uses membrane permeability/patency to assess in situ viability and a metabolic stain (CTC: 5-cyano-2,3,-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride) to measure bacterial respiratory activity in biofilms (Kim et al., 2008a). This study found that although nearly half of cells within the biofilm were not cultured (compared with direct microscopic analysis), 90% retained respiratory activity and 70% demonstrated membrane patency.

2d) However, the number of T lymphocytes was not significantly d

2d). However, the number of T lymphocytes was not significantly different Erlotinib ic50 in these wells (data not shown). The above results indicate that AZM inhibits not only the maturation but also the functions of DCs. NF-κB was reported to be required for the maturation of DCs [7,8]. We therefore examined the effects of AZM on NF-κB p65 activation in DCs. EMSA was performed on nuclear extracts prepared from im-DCs pretreated with 50 or 75 µg/ml of AZM for varying periods of time and then incubated further with and without LPS for 2 h. In this DNA binding reaction, unlabelled wild-type and mutant competitor oligonucleotides were used in a 100-fold molar excess over

labelled NF-κB probe. AZM decreased nuclear

NF-κB DNA-binding activity significantly in im-DCs stimulated with LPS in a dose- and time-dependent manner (Fig. 3a,b). We found that AZM, a macrolide antibiotic and NF-κB inhibitor, suppresses maturation and allogeneic responses of murine BM-derived Ceritinib concentration DCs in vitro. AZM is a 15-membered ring macrolide that is used widely for treatment of bacterial infections caused by both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. AZM is concentrated in lysosomes to an unusual degree because of its dibasic characteristics [31]. Lysosomes in DCs play an important role in antigen presentation: DEC-205, the DC receptor for endocytosis, can recycle and enhance antigen presentation via MHC class II-positive lysosomal compartments [32]. AZM is concentrated inside cells at ratios exceeding 200 : 1. It is highly concentrated in a number of cell types, including polymorphonuclear neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages, which can retain, deliver and, potentially, release AZM at sites of infection [31]. Moreover, Khan et al. reported that AZM inhibited production of IL-1α and TNF-α by LPS-stimulated human monocytes [33]. These functional

activities may be important, as in the infected host excessive or unrestricted overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines Teicoplanin can be detrimental, as in septic shock [33]. However, little is known with regard to DCs. Recently, Sugiyama et al. reported that macrolide antibiotics, including AZM, act as anti-inflammatory agents by modulating the functions of murine BM-derived DCs [22]. However, in surface marker analysis by flow cytometry, they found that AZM did not inhibit maturation of murine BM-derived immature DCs after LPS stimulation, which contradicts our results (Fig. 1). We think that this discrepancy may be due to a difference in the method of DC pretreatment with AZM, including the higher concentration (10 µg/ml versus 50 or 75 µg/ml) and/or longer incubation time (days 8 and 10 in 11-day culture versus days 0, 3 and 6 or day 6 in 7-day culture) in our study. IL-10 is well known as a key regulator of anti-inflammatory responses.

7B and C), expression of both TCR forms was rescued Surprisingly

7B and C), expression of both TCR forms was rescued. Surprisingly, under these conditions cska-TCRs accumulated at much higher levels (up to 200% of their expression in the nonactivated state) than the non-cska-TCRs (up to 75% of their expression levels in nonactivated cells), in the same cells (Supporting Information Fig.

7B and C). Levels of the T-cell-specific ZAP-70 PTK, which served as control, were unchanged (Supporting Information Fig. 7B). These results suggest that following activation most TCRs become associated with the cytoskeleton. Despite the massive downregulation of cell surface-expressed TCRs upon activation, low levels of surface receptors are maintained for the completion of T-cell activation [11]. However, the identity of these stably expressed surface TCRs remained unknown. We demonstrate that selleckchem while levels of cell surface expressed non-cska-TCRs were dramatically reduced following activation, levels of cell surface expressed cska-TCRs were only slightly reduced (Fig. 3A, left panel). Thus, the majority of TCRs expressed on the surface of activated T cells (after 14 h) belong to the cska population, despite the total recovery of both TCR populations to normal levels within the cell (Fig. 3A, right panel). We next followed the effect of cska-TCRs on the outcome of long-term activation

and assessed their effect on the capacity of the WT and MUT cells to secrete cytokines (IL-2) upon TCR-mediated

activation. The results revealed that the MUT cells secreted check details significantly less Liothyronine Sodium IL-2 than the WT cells (Fig. 3B). Upon activation with PMA and ionophore, which bypass the TCR, no differences between the MUT and WT cells in IL-2 secretion were observed, indicating a similar capacity of both cells to produce/secret IL-2 when activated via pathways that circumvent the TCR (Fig. 3B). Assessment of the capacity of the WT and MUT cells to synthesize cytokines revealed that the MUT cells synthesized significantly lower amounts of IL-2 compared with the WT cells (Fig. 3C). In addition, differences between MUT and WT cells were also observed in the induction of the cell surface expressed activation-dependent markers, CD25 and CD69 (Fig. 3D and F). Moreover, we also demonstrate that successfully activated WT T cells can affect the corresponding APCs, leading to the induction of CD25 and CD69 on their cell surface (Fig. 3E and G). In contrast, activated MUT T cells did not support CD25 and CD69 induction on the APCs (Fig. 3E and G), most likely due to the lack of IS formation and aberrant MUT cells activation. Dynamic regulation of TCR expression levels, TCR membrane reorganization, and interaction with intracellular molecules are key processes in modulating T-cell responses.

pylori leads to the production of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-23 and

pylori leads to the production of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-23 and limited amounts of IL-12 [10], and these H. pylori-treated DCs stimulate

interferon (IFN)-γ production in naive T cells in vitro [10]. Biopsy material from H. pylori-infected individuals confirms both local infiltration of T helper type 1 (Th1) [11, 12] as well as Th17 cells [13, 14], suggesting that H. pylori has more than one effect on immunological cells. CD4+CD25hiforkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3+) regulatory T cells (Treg) are naturally occurring T cells capable of suppressing CD4+CD25− effector T cell (Teff) proliferation and cytokine production [15]. These cells play a critical role in maintaining peripheral tolerance, with their absence resulting in severe multi-organ autoimmune diseases [16]. Tregs also moderate the immune response to pathogens Epigenetics Compound Library solubility dmso by regulating the balance between immunity and inflammation – while Autophagy Compound high throughput screening Treg suppression needs to be overcome for effective anti-pathogen responses, excessive inflammation could result in disproportionate injury to healthy tissues [17]. Evidence has emerged to show a key role for Tregs in maintaining this balance, in some circumstances resulting in pathogen persistence in order to limit tissue injury [18, 19]. For example, lesional sites in Leishmania major infection are characterized

by the presence of both L. major and large numbers of Tregs that prevent the clearance of infection [18]. Similarly, Tregs limit the inflammatory response to H. hepaticus, thus limiting subsequent tissue damage [19]. In the case of H. pylori, infected individuals have H. pylori-specific circulating Tregs, impairing the memory response to H. pylori [20], and an elevated number of FoxP3+ cells in gastric biopsies [21]. This evidence suggests that H. pylori infection results in expansion of the Treg population and their recruitment to the site

of infection in order to limit the inflammatory response. Pathogen-stimulated DCs have been implicated in the expansion of Tregs. Cobimetinib Yamazaki et al. demonstrated that while splenic APCs are poor promoters of Treg proliferation, bone marrow-derived DCs are capable of inducing Tregs to proliferate to a degree comparable with Teff during the first 3 days of culture [22]. The underlying mechanisms are thought to be through both contact-dependent (e.g. CD86/80 co-stimulation [23]) and non-contact-dependent [cytokine production, in particular the inflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α] processes [24-28]. Based on reports of elevated Treg numbers in H. pylori-infected sites, we hypothesized that H. pylori instructs DCs to stimulate proliferation of Tregs locally. Furthermore, the presence of chronic inflammation despite the existence of elevated numbers of Tregs suggests that these Tregs have impaired ability to suppress local inflammation. We have investigated the direct and indirect effect of H.

The patient did well until 18 months later, when she presented to

The patient did well until 18 months later, when she presented to the Emergency Department with erythema and drainage from a medial malleolar wound. She was again treated with oral cephalexin, and on follow-up, an aspirate was taken from the ankle joint with only bloody return and negative culture results (no growth). Radiographs showed only a possible subtle loosening find more of the tibial component of the prosthesis. Nonetheless, based on clinical suspicion, the patient was admitted for intravenous antibiotics and taken to surgery for explantation of the TAR components with the placement of a vancomycin/gentamicin spacer. Intraoperative

irrigation with methylene blue demonstrated a sinus track from the medial malleolar wound to the joint space. Intraoperative cultures were positive only for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Tofacitinib price aureus (MRSA). Explanted specimens are the subject of this report. Tibial and talar components recovered during the implant removal surgery were placed aseptically in sterile specimen bags and placed directly on ice. Additionally, associated reactive

tissue was collected in sterile specimen containers and placed on ice. Two pieces of tissue for RT-PCR were deposited directly into RNase-free tubes containing RNALater® (Ambion) and stored at −20 °C. Postoperatively, the patient was maintained on intravenous vancomycin for 3 weeks, but was changed to daptomycin for a possible antibiotic-induced leucopenia. She subsequently

required re-exploration for persistent wound failure, with replacement of her selleck screening library antibiotic-impregnated cement spacer and treatment with tigecycline. Thereafter, her wound ultimately healed and she is now ambulating as tolerated with the cement spacer in place. We used the Ibis T5000 Universal Biosensor System, which is a multiprimer PCR technique used to rapidly identify bacteria associated with clinical specimens (Ecker et al., 2008). The Ibis T5000 is for research use only (RUO) and is not yet approved for use in diagnostic procedures. First, we extracted DNA from the tissue: approximately 1 mm3 of tissue was transferred to a microcentrifuge tube containing lysis buffer (Qiagen) and 20 μg mL−1 proteinase K (Qiagen). The sample was incubated at 55 °C until visual inspection indicated that lysis was achieved. Zirconia/Silica Beads (0.45 g of 0.1 mm diameter, Biospec, PN: 11079101z) were added to the microcentrifuge tube and the sample was homogenized for 10 min at 25 Hz using a Qiagen Tissuelyser (Model MM300, cat# 85210). Nucleic acid from the lysed sample was extracted using the Qiagen DNeasy Tissue kit. Supernatants (200 μL) containing the extracted nucleic acid were removed and aliquoted into the wells of an Ibis Bacterial Surveillance microtiter plate (Abbott, cat# 03N33-01), which is used for broad identification of bacterial species.