Consensus for EGFR mutation testing in non-small cell lung cancer

Consensus for EGFR mutation testing in non-small cell lung cancer: results

from a European workshop. J Thorac Oncol 2010, 5:1706–1713.PubMedCrossRef 3. Marchetti A, Martella C, Felicioni L, Barassi F, Salvatore S, Chella A, Camplese PP, Iarussi T, Mucilli F, Mezzetti A, Cuccurullo F, Sacco R, Buttitta F: EGFR mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer: analysis of a large series of cases and development of a rapid and sensitive method for diagnostic screening with potential implications on pharmacologic treatment. Crenigacestat supplier J Clin Oncol 2005, 23:857–865.PubMedCrossRef 4. Endo K, Konishi A, Sasaki H, Takada M, Tanaka H, Okumura M, Kawahara M, Sugiura H, Kuwabara Y, Fukai I, Matsumura A, Yano M, Kobayashi Y, Mizuno K, Haneda H, Suzuki E, Iuchi K, Fujii Y: Epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutation in non-small cell lung cancer using highly sensitive and fast TaqMan PCR assay. Lung Cancer 2005, 50:375–384.PubMedCrossRef 5. Zhou C, Ni J, Zhao Y, Su B: Rapid detection of epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in non-small cell lung cancer using real-time polymerase chain reaction

with TaqMan-MGB probes. Cancer J 2006, 12:33–39.PubMedCrossRef 6. Yatabe Y, Hida T, Horio Y, Kosaka T, Takahashi T, Mitsudomi T: A rapid, sensitive assay to Ralimetinib nmr detect EGFR mutation in small biopsy specimens from lung cancer. J Mol Diagn 2006, 8:335–341.PubMedCrossRef 7. Pan Q, Pao W, Ladanyi M: Rapid polymerase chain reaction-based detection of epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutations in lung adenocarcinomas. J Mol Diagn 2005, 7:396–403.PubMedCrossRef 8. Tanaka T, Nagai Y, Miyazawa selleckchem H, Koyama Tau-protein kinase N, Matsuoka S, Sutani A, Huqun , Udagawa K, Murayama Y, Nagata M, Shimizu Y, Ikebuchi K, Kanazawa M, Kobayashi K, Hagiwara

K: Reliability of the peptide nucleic acid-locked nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction clamp-based test for epidermal growth factor receptor mutations integrated into the clinical practice for non-small cell lung cancers. Cancer Sci 2007, 98:246–252.PubMedCrossRef 9. Janne PA, Borras AM, Kuang Y, Rogers AM, Joshi VA, Liyanage H, Lindeman N, Lee JC, Halmos B, Maher EA, Distel RJ, Meyerson M, Johnson BE: A rapid and sensitive enzymatic method for epidermal growth factor receptor mutation screening. Clin Cancer Res 2006, 12:751–758.PubMedCrossRef 10. Chin TM, Anuar D, Soo R, Salto-Tellez M, Li WQ, Ahmad B, Lee SC, Goh BC, Kawakami K, Segal A, Iacopetta B, Soong R: Detection of epidermal growth factor receptor variations by partially denaturing HPLC. Clin Chem 2007, 53:62–70.PubMedCrossRef 11. Cohen V, Agulnik JS, Jarry J, Batist G, Small D, Kreisman H, Tejada NA, Miller WH Jr, Chong G: Evaluation of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography as a rapid detection method for identification of epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in nonsmall-cell lung cancer. Cancer 2006, 107:2858–2865.PubMedCrossRef 12.


in boldface are commercially important C  = Cala


in boldface are commercially important. C. = Calamus, D. = Daemonorops Assemblage composition Species turnover click here between plots (beta-diversity) was related to the geographical distance and the differences of precipitation and elevation between plots (Fig. 4, Table 3). While many distant plots shared some species, a difference in elevation of more than 900 m led to a complete change in the species set of the plots. Fig. 4 Beta-diversity measured as the Sørensen index dependent on the a distance, b difference of precipitation and c the difference of elevation between the plots. A Sørensen index of 0 indicates a different composition Trichostatin A research buy of species Table 3 Results of Mantel tests for correlations of Sørensen similarity index to geographical distances,

differences in precipitation, and differences in elevation, as well as the combinations of these factors Factor R² Distance Precipitation Elevation Combination Total Distance 0.47       0.47 Precipitation   0.40     0.40 Elevation     0.56   0.56 Distance + precipitation 0.09 0.06   0.35 0.50 Distance + elevation 0.16   0.24 0.51 0.91 Precipitation + elevation   0.16 0.32 0.45 0.93 The total R²-value of two factors is itemized into R²-value of the single factors and their combination. All R²-values are significant (P < 0.001) Accordingly, the Mantel EPZ004777 tests showed that difference in elevation had the strongest predictive power for similarity in assemblage composition (R² = 0.56), followed by geographical distance (R² = 0.47) and difference in precipitation (R² = 0.40). In combination, more than 90% of the variance of assemblage similarity was accounted for, if the difference in elevation was included. In contrast, the combination of geographical distance and difference of precipitation only accounted for 50% of the variance of assemblage similarity. Discussion General patterns Rattan palms are an important component of the

tropical rainforest flora in Sulawesi where they represent about 50% (56 species) of the island’s palm flora (J. Mogea, pers. com.). In our study, we found 34 species, including 25 as yet undescribed species. Amrubicin Complete identification of rattan palms is often impossible without fertile specimens, which are often not available. In our study only three rattan species were found with fruits (Calamus sp. 14, Daemonorops macroptera, D. sp. 1). Several species were widely distributed in LLNP, among them the commercially important species C. zollingeri, C. ornatus var. celebicus and D. macroptera. Common species of the rainforests above 1000 m (e.g. C. sp. 3, C. sp. 5, C. sp. 16 and D. sp. 1) are still taxonomically undescribed, reflecting the poor botanical knowledge of Sulawesi and the low economical importance of these species.

1997; Rodrigues et al 2004; Silva 2004) Fruit size also indicat

1997; Rodrigues et al. 2004; Silva 2004). Fruit size also indicates the extent to which a population has been modified due to human selection during domestication (Clement et al. 2010). Couvreur et al. (2006) identified fruit size as the main characteristic differentiating wild from cultivated peach palm. A study conducted in Ecuador found that the fruit volumes

of cultivated individuals are 12–33 times bigger than for wild individuals (70 vs. 2.1–5.5 cm3). Although peach palm is also cultivated in the Guyanas, we could not find information about particular peach palm landraces or wild populations in this region. Wild Brazilian populations were sought close to the border with French Guiana but without success (Clement et al. 2009). There is no evidence suggesting whether this part of the distribution range belongs to an existing population or forms a distinct one. Fig. 2 Mature fruit bunches of cultivated peach palm accessions with different country origin that are conserved in the peach palm genebank collection of the Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE) in Costa Rica (Photos courtesy Xavier Scheldeman and Jesus Salcedo)

Conservation and use of genetic resources Ex situ germplasm collections, LGX818 mw which consist of accessions collected from different areas growing in the same field, maintain high levels of peach palm phenotypic variation (Fig. 2). Mora-Urpí et al. (1997) estimated

that a total of 3,309 peach palm accessions with passport data are currently being conserved in 17 collections distributed over eight countries (i.e., Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru and Venezuela). A more recent overview of peach palm collections in the Amazon basin reported 2,006 accessions conserved in ten collections, including a collection in Bolivia of 200 accessions (Scheldeman et al. 2006). Maintaining ex situ collections is costly Megestrol Acetate (Clement et al. 2001; Van Leeuwen et al. 2005). Clement et al. (2004) stated that there is no justification for establishing so many collections of such large size for an Tariquidar cost underutilized tree crop like peach palm. Smaller genebanks might better address farmers’ needs and consumer preferences (Clement et al. 2004; Van Leeuwen et al. 2005). Smaller collections that capture most of the genetic variation in current germplasm collections offer a good option for reducing maintenance costs (Clement et al. 2001). To assure that these collections adequately represent the existing diversity, accessions need to be screened using molecular markers for morphological and biochemical characteristics of interest that show high rates of heritability. This is already being done for the collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA) in Brazil (Reis 2009; Araújo et al. 2010).

The fourth gene, recA, codes for a product that initiates the for

The fourth gene, recA, codes for a product that initiates the formation of Holliday junction intermediates during homologous recombination [21]. Our ML and MP phylogenetic inferences based of these four gene sequences are in agreement with earlier findings by Kawamura et al. [2] and Poyart et al. [14] and corroborate the

S. thermophilus/S. vestibularis sister-relationship. Results Phylogenetic analyses of secA gene sequences We began our investigation of the branching order of the streptococci of the salivarius group by looking at phylogenetic trees Akt inhibitor inferred from the secA gene (Figure 1). As expected, the salivarius group comprising S. salivarius, S. thermophilus, and S. vestibularis was monophyletic in all the ML and MP bootstrap replicates. The S. thermophilus and S. vestibularis species monophylies were strongly supported by the ML and MP analyses, while support for the S. salivarius monophyly ranged from weak to moderate in the ML analyses and

strong in the MP analyses. Our phylogenetic analyses based on secA gene sequences strongly support the notion that S. vestibularis and S. thermophilus are closely related species. The node comprising these two species was retrieved in all the ML and MP bootstrap replicates, while the other two possible alternate topologies, CB-5083 cell line i.e., the S. salivarius/S. vestibularis and S. salivarius/S. thermophilus relationships, were not recovered

in any of the replicates. Figure 1 Branching order of members of the salivarius group as inferred from ML and MP analyses of secA gene sequences eltoprazine (2484 positions; 1261 variable, 1169 phylogenetically informative). The best ML tree computed with PHYML 3.0 under the GTR+Γ4+I model of nucleotide substitution is shown here. Bootstrap support for the major nodes is indicated over the corresponding nodes: ML values left, MP values right. PF-02341066 research buy Asterisks denote nodes that were retrieved in all the bootstrap replicates. Dashes indicate nodes that were retrieved in fewer than 50% of the bootstrap replicates. Streptococcal species belonging to the salivarius group are shown in orange (S. salivarius), blue (S. vestibularis), or green (S. thermophilus). Strains CCUG 7215 and CCUG 27306, which are categorized as Streptococcus vestibularis in the CCUG culture collection, are capable of using raffinose as the sole carbon source. This contradicts Whiley and Hardie’s [4] canonical S. vestibularis species definition. This metabolic trait is more a hallmark of the closely related Streptococcus salivarius species, to which the two strains belong. Other streptococcal species shown in black were outgroups. Branch lengths are drawn to scale.

After the big bang, nebula expanded quickly and cooled steadily

After the big bang, nebula expanded quickly and cooled steadily. In this period, H2 molecules and hydride radicals and molecules with the bond energy exceeding that in H2 (per H g-atom) formed. With time, nebula transformed to a flat thin disk composed of many concentric diffusely-bounded rings; the more peripheral they were, the lighter molecules they tended to contain. PFO formation started, when the nebula began to collapse after

CA3 its outer H2 and He rings cooled to the H2 condensation temperature; H2droplets absorbed light Li, Be, B, LiH, and BeH atoms and molecules, which formed the agglomerate cores and increased their size competing with each others for the mass and gravitational attraction. Heavy atoms and hydrides remained in that nebula section in which the

temperature was too high for their physical agglomeration and in which their concentration was too low for chemical reactions to proceed to a significant degree. As the nebular-disc compression increased, chemical combination reactions accelerated in the diffusive regions of the neighboring disc rings, exponentially stimulated localizations of the substances and reaction heat, and initiated compressible vortexes, within which hot cores of the present sky objects localized. This heat was capable of melting the cores but was not capable of their evaporating. The pressure depletion in the vicinities of the giant vortexes and the gravitational attraction of the last stimulated flows of light cold vaporous and gaseous substances and their asteroid-like CX-5461 in vitro agglomerates from the outer space and

also of asteroid-like agglomerates of not so light substances from the intermediate regions of the space to the hot cores originated by the vortexes. The flows precipitated over the hot core surfaces of the CFO and cooled these surfaces. The sandwiches obtained as a result of this precipitation became steadily the young Earth-group planets and their satellites. These mechanisms are capable of explaining the planet compositions. Alibert, Y. et al. (2005). Models of giant planet formation with migration and disc evolution. A&A, 434: 343–353. Albarède F. and Blichert-Toft, J. (2007). Comptes Rendus Geoscience, 339(14–15): 917–929 Boss, A.P. (2008). diffusion approximation models of giant planet formation Ribonucleotide reductase by disk instability. The Astrophysical Journal, 677(1):607–615. Hoyle, F. (1981). The big bang astronomy. New Scientist, 92:521–527. Jang-Condell, H. and Boss, A.P. (2007). Signatures of planet formation in gravitationally unstable disks. The Astrophys. J. Letters, 659:L169–L172. Kadyshevich, E. A. and Ostrovskii V. E. (in press). Planet-system origination and methane-hydrate formation and relict atmosphere transformation at the Earth. To appear in Izvestiya, Atmospheric and. Oceanic Physics. Shmidt, O. Yu. (1949). Four lectures on the Earth-formation theory. Acad. Sci. USSR, M. (Rus.) E-mail: vostrov@cc.​nifhi.​ac.​ru Life Origination Hydrate Hypothesis (LOH-Hypothesis) V. E. Ostrovskii1, E. A.

Competition assay Competition assays

Competition assay Competition assays MI-503 cost were carried out to investigate the involvement of UndA in iron reduction. Wild-type, ΔmtrC, ΔundA and ΔmtrC-undA mutants were grown to exponential phase at OD600 of 0.6 aerobically. Equal volumes of culture were mixed together and inoculated by 1:100 dilutions into anaerobic LB medium supplemented with 50 mM sodium lactate and 20 mM ferric citrate. The co-cultures were transferred to fresh anaerobic medium in 1:100 dilutions

on the daily basis. Samples were taken at Day one, three and seven and plated on LB plates aerobically. Colony PCR (96 colonies per plate, 3 replicates) with primers listed in Additional file 1: Table S2 was used to determine the ratios. Sequence analysis Protein sequences were retrieved from the NCBI database by using BLASTP searches. The Clustal W software and the on-line tool Phylodendron (http://​iubio.​bio.​indiana.​edu/​treeapp/​treeprint-form.​html) were used for the multiple alignment

and phylogenetic tree construction. Results Comparison of iron reduction between Shewanella putrefaciens W3-18-1 and Shewanella VRT752271 research buy oneidensis MR-1 W3-18-1 was shown previously to reduce Fe(III) oxide [27], which prompted us to conduct a comparison between W3-18-1 and MR-1 in reducing soluble or insoluble Fe(III) forms. To this end, the abilities of W3-18-1 and MR-1 in Fe(III) reduction were compared in liquid cultures supplemented with one of the following Fe(III) reagents as the sole electron acceptor: ferric citrate, α-FeO(OH), CYT387 chemical structure β-FeO(OH), and Fe2O3. ifenprodil All of the iron forms are insoluble except ferric citrate. α-FeO(OH), β-FeO(OH) and Fe2O3 are the major components of goethite, akaganeite and hematite, respectively. Across all of the five time

points examined, W3-18-1 showed consistently higher iron reduction capacities than MR-1 when α-FeO(OH) was provided as electron acceptor (Figure 1). In contrast, iron reduction capacities with other iron forms were similar between W3-18-1 and MR-1. To verify it, a complementary non-parametric multivariate statistical test using adonis algorithm was carried out. The results indicated that the differences between W3-18-1 and MR-1 was significant for α-FeO(OH), but not other irons (see insets of Figure 1). Figure 1 Comparison of anaerobic (A) α- FeO(OH), (B) β- FeO(OH) (C) Fe 2 O 3 and (D) ferric citrate reduction between MR-1 and W3-18-1. A negative control was included, in which no bacterial cells were inoculated. Reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) was monitored using ferrozine at 562 nm. Data are averages for triplicates and error bars indicate standard deviation. The insets indicate significance of the dissimilarity test of adonis. Genes implicated in iron reduction All of the currently sequenced Shewanella genomes except Shewanella denitrificans contain an mtr-omc gene cluster that encodes several proteins predicted to be associated with metal reduction [13, 28]. Among these, mtrBAC are omnipresent and conserved in the cluster (Figure 2A).

Data analysis The genetic diversity was measured by the Hunter-Ga

Data analysis The genetic diversity was measured by the Hunter-Gaston Diversity Index (DI) on http://​www.​hpa-bioinformatics.​org.​uk/​cgi-bin/​DICI/​DICI.​pl. A high DI with a narrow confident interval Selleckchem PX-478 (CI) indicates accurate measurement of a highly Captisol supplier variable locus. These loci may be sufficiently variable to be used as an indicator to discriminate

between samples or as a starting point for assay development. The genetic distances between two isolates i and j were calculated as following: One marker difference is equivalent to 15%, 5/7 different is 70%. In our study, the criteria sets provided by either MLVA or MLST analysis consider two strains similar having at least 70% similarity, i.e. a DLV difference. The interest of the method is to quantify the difference. The minimum spanning trees by MLST using the 7 house keeping genes and by MLVA were constructed using BioNumerics ver. 5.0 with the categorical coefficient. Priority rules were fixed as following: maximum number of i) Single-locus variants (SLVs);

ii) SLVs and double-locus variants (DLVs); iii) Maximum neighbour minimum cluster size of two loci (DLV) and 2 ST, when the seven H 89 ic50 housekeeping gene markers were used by MLST; iv) Maximum neighbour minimum cluster size of two loci (DLV) and 2 MT, when 17 markers were used and one locus (SLV) and 2 MT when 7 markers are used by MLVA. The Congruence among Distance Matrices MLST/MLVA was calculated in % of difference of the genetic distance between two isolates depending on the number of markers used using Bionumerics ver.5.0 as well. The Inter-Matrix Difference (IMD) was calculated using the formula below, where d(i,j) is the genetic distance between i and j, and n the number of isolates. Rebamipide Marker numbers refer to Table 2. The lower the IMD value is the closest is the distance matrices given by the two techniques. Table 2 Genetic diversity of the 331 isolates of S. pneumoniae Marker name DI* 95% CI † Marker set by author This paper Koeck 2008 [[19]] Pichon 2010 [[26]] Elberse 2011 [[25]]       (A)   (B)

(C) ms15_507bp_45bp_7U 0.607 [0.588-0.626]       + ms17_167bp_45bp_3U 0.852 [0.847-0.857] + + +   ms19_663pb_60pb_10U 0.674 [0.658-0.691] + + +   ms25_426bp_45bp_4U 0.788 [0.779-0.797] + + + + ms26_492bp_51bp_6U 0.714 [0.703-0.726]         ms27_326bp_45bp_3U 0.561 [0.543-0.579] +       ms31_594bp_45bp_9U 0.695 [0.683-0.708]         ms32_280pb_45bp_2U 0.598 [0.585-0.611]       + ms33_407bp_45bp_2U 0.737 [0.725-0.748] + +   + ms34_239bp_45bp_1U 0.682 [0.670-0.695]     +   ms35_349bp_49bp_4U 0.572 [0.557-0.587]         ms36_274pb_45pb_2U 0.793 [0.786-0.801]     +   ms37_501bp_45bp_7U 0.855 [0.851-0.859] + + + + ms38_309bp_45bp_2U 0.557 [0.535-0.578]       + ms39_275bp_45bp_2U 0.812 [0.804-0.819] +   +   ms40_376bp_45bp_3U 0.789 [0.782-0.797]   +   + ms41_166pb_14pb_2U 0.567 [0.548-0.586]   +     All markers 0.989 [0.987-0.991]         Congruence (%)     47.2 59 65.

Biofilm formation is considered an important factor in resistance

Biofilm formation is considered an important factor in resistance to stresses and in bacterial colonization and persistence in different environmental niches [11]. It has been reported that ability of A. baumannii to form biofilm in laboratory conditions correlates with resistance to complement-mediated bacterial killing [12]. This observation suggests that biofilm Omipalisib in vitro formation can contribute to A. baumannii survival during host infection, thus representing an important

virulence factor. In contrast, studies addressing possible correlation between biofilm and multidrug resistance have produced conflicting results [13–16]. Ability to form biofilm has been reported for numerous A. baumannii strains [12–16], and several biofilm determinants, i.e., the csu pili [17], and the outer membrane-associated Compound C mw proteins Bap [18] and OmpA [19] have been identified. In this report, we have characterized A. baumannii isolates responsible for nosocomial infections in two hospitals in Italy. We showed that all isolates were genetically related, suggesting

that they originate from a single clone, termed SMAL. A. baumannii SMAL is not clonally related to known multidrug resistant A. baumannii lineages such as European clones I and II [20, 21]. We have studied how growth conditions and exposure of A. baumannii SMAL to subinhibitory concentrations of imipenem affects its ability to form biofilm, a cellular process with important consequences on sensitivity to antimicrobial agents and on microbial persistence in the human host. Results Characterization of Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates A total of 73 Acinetobacter baumannii isolates responsible of various infections were collected from patients in different wards of two Hospitals in Pavia, Italy, between 2002 and 2007. 69 out of 73 isolates showed identical multidrug resistant phenotype, being resistant to fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and most β-lactams; however, they retained susceptibility to carbapenems,

tetracycline and to ampicillin/sulbactam (Table 1). The remaining 4 isolates showed different antibiotic susceptibility patterns, including resistance to carbapenems and tetracycline (data not shown). The 69 isolates were characterized by an identical β-lactamase pattern, producing 3 distinct β-lactamases, with pI values of 6.1, 7.0, >8.2, compatible Chlormezanone with those of OXA-10, OXA-51-like and AmpC-type enzymes. PCR experiments and direct DNA sequencing using the same primers confirmed the presence of bla OXA-10 and bla OXA-90 genes (Table 1). The β-lactamase pattern shown by the isolates is consistent with their susceptibility to carbapenems: indeed, OXA-51-like β-lactamases only possess slow hydrolytic activity against imipenem and result in very little effect on imipenem sensitivity even when overexpressed [22]. Table 1 Antimicrobial susceptibility, production of β-lactamases, and pulsotype of the 69 isolates of A. baumannii analyzed in this study.

CrossRefPubMed 6 Yano M, Ikeda Y, Matsuzaki M: Altered intracell

CrossRefPubMed 6. Yano M, Ikeda Y, Matsuzaki M: Altered intracellular Ca2+ handling in heart failure. J Clin Invest 2005, 115: 556–64.PubMed 7. Kellner Selleckchem XAV939 J, Tantzscher J, Oelmez H, Edelmann M, Fischer R, Huber RM, Bergner A: Mechanisms Altering Airway Smooth Muscle Cell Ca Homeostasis in Two Asthma Models. Kinase Inhibitor Library cell assay Respiration 2008, 76: 205–15.CrossRefPubMed 8. Korosec B, Glavac D, Rott T, Ravnik-Glavac M: Alterations in the ATP2A2 gene in correlation with colon and lung cancer. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 2006, 171: 105–11.CrossRefPubMed 9. Endo Y, Uzawa K, Mochida Y, Shiiba M, Bukawa H, Yokoe H, Tanzawa H: Sarcoendoplasmic reticulum

Ca(2+) ATPase type 2 downregulated in human oral squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Cancer 2004, 110: 225–31.CrossRefPubMed 10. Pacifico F, Ulianich L, De Micheli S, Treglia S, Leonardi A, Vito P, Formisano S, Consiglio E, Di Jeso B: The expression of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPases in thyroid and its down-regulation following neoplastic transformation. J Mol Endocrinol 2003, 30: 399–409.CrossRefPubMed 11. Brouland JP, Gelebart

P, Kovacs T, Enouf J, Grossmann J, Papp B: The loss of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium transport ATPase 3 expression is an early event during the multistep process of colon carcinogenesis. Am J Pathol 2005, 167: 233–42.PubMed 12. Chung FY, Lin SR, Lu CY, Yeh CS, Chen FM, Hsieh JS, Huang TJ, Wang JY: Sarco/endoplasmic Caspase inhibitor reticulum calcium-ATPase 2 expression as a tumor marker in colorectal cancer. Am J Surg Pathol 2006, 30: 969–74.CrossRefPubMed 13. Legrand G, Humez S, Slomianny C, Dewailly E, Abeele F, Mariot P, Wuytack F, Prevarskaya N: Ca2+ pools and cell growth. Evidence for sarcoendoplasmic Ca2+-ATPases old 2B involvement in human prostate cancer cell growth control. J Biol Chem 2001, 276: 47608–14.CrossRefPubMed 14. Vanoverberghe K, Abeele F, Mariot

P, Lepage G, Roudbaraki M, Bonnal JL, Mauroy B, Shuba Y, Skryma R, Prevarskaya N: Ca2+ homeostasis and apoptotic resistance of neuroendocrine-differentiated prostate cancer cells. Cell Death Differ 2004, 11: 321–30.CrossRefPubMed 15. Crepin A, Bidaux G, Abeele F, Dewailly E, Goffin V, Prevarskaya N, Slomianny C: Prolactin stimulates prostate cell proliferation by increasing endoplasmic reticulum content due to SERCA 2b over-expression. Biochem J 2007, 401: 49–55.CrossRefPubMed 16. Lipskaia L, Hulot JS, Lompre AM: Role of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium content and calcium ATPase activity in the control of cell growth and proliferation. Pflugers Arch 2009, 457 (3) : 673–85.CrossRefPubMed 17. Bezprozvanny I: The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors. Cell Calcium 2005, 38: 261–72.CrossRefPubMed 18. Sakakura C, Hagiwara A, Fukuda K, Shimomura K, Takagi T, Kin S, Nakase Y, Fujiyama J, Mikoshiba K, Okazaki Y, Yamagishi H: Possible involvement of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 3 (IP3R3) in the peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancers. Anticancer Res 2003, 23: 3691–7.PubMed 19.

1991) The approach begins with an identity in which CO2 emission

1991). The approach begins with an identity in which CO2 emissions from

fossil fuel combustion can be expressed as the product of four terms, as follows: $$ \textCO_]# 2 = (\textCO_ 2/\textPE)\times (\textPE/\textGDP) \times (\textGDP/\textPOP) \times \textPOP $$where CO2 is CO2 emission, PE is primary energy consumption, GDP is gross domestic product, and POP is population. The term CO2/PE represents average carbon intensity of energy, PE/GDP represents economy-wide energy intensity, and GDP/POP represents average per capita GDP. Figure 9 shows the result of the decomposition. Fig. 9 Decomposition of global CO2 emissions change in the s600 scenario Population and per capita GDP are the increasing factors. Per capita GDP increases rapidly, reaching 2.4-fold the 2005 level by 2050. In spite of the increasing population and per capita GDP, CO2 emissions decrease because of significant

reductions of energy intensity and carbon intensity. Energy intensity is the fastest-declining factor in the coming 3 decades and halves by 2040. Carbon intensity plays a somewhat smaller role than energy intensity in reducing CO2 in the near future. As time passes, however, it plays an increasingly important role, eventually overtaking energy intensity after 2040. By 2050, carbon intensity drops to one-fourth selleck chemical of the 2005 level. Energy system transitions This section interprets sectoral results to help us better understand the energy system transitions in a scenario where the targeted 50 % reduction of GHG emissions by 2050 is achieved. Power generation In the reference

scenario, global power generation increases from 17 to 47 PWh over the period from 2005 to 2050 (Fig. 10). The energy source composition changes moderately in the reference scenario over the same period. The share of coal, for example, increases from 42 to 51 %. The CO2 BMS-907351 in vitro emission factor of electricity, Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) namely, CO2 emission per unit of electricity generation, decreases gradually over time, thanks mainly to improved generation efficiency in thermal power plants. Fig. 10 Transition in the power generation sector. The CO2 emission factor of electricity denotes the CO2 emission per unit of electricity generation In contrast to the reference scenario, power generation technologies drastically change in the s600 scenario. Coal power generation, the largest contributor to CO2 emission in 2005, contributes progressively less in s600 as time passes, and CCS is introduced after 2020. The deployment of renewable energy accelerates over the same period: wind accelerates after 2010; solar and biomass accelerate after 2020 and 2030, respectively. Thus, the share of renewables dramatically increases over time: by 2050, wind, solar, biomass, and hydro together account for about 75 % of the total power generation.