In the CSAP + ADT group, 57 0% had BCR using the ASTRO definition

In the CSAP + ADT group, 57.0% had BCR using the ASTRO definition, 21.2% using the Phoenix definition and 54.5% using a PSA cutoff of 0.5 ng mL(-1).

In the 3D-CRT + ADT group, 54.5%, 21.2% and 54.5% had BCR using the ASTRO, Phoenix and PSA definition, respectively. In the CSAP + ADT group, the BCR-free survival (BRFS) was 54 +/- 10 months using the ASTRO definition, 65 +/- 5 months using the Phoenix definition and 51 +/- 4 months using a PSA cutoff of 0.5 ng mL(-1). In the 3D-CRT + ADT group, the BRFS was 68 +/- 12, 93 +/- 19 and 70 +/- 18 months using the ASTRO, Phoenix and PSA definition, respectively. By the log-rank test, the BRFS values Selleckchem GW786034 for each group were not statistically different. This intermediate-term result indicated that primary CSAP combined with prolonged ADT offers a parallel biochemical response compared with radiotherapy in high-risk prostate cancer.”
“The CD44 family belongs to a larger group of hyaluronic acid-binding proteins and plays important roles in oocyte maturation, fertilization and preimplantational embryo development. We analyzed the CD44 receptor in sheep oocytes and embryos. Immature oocytes (N = 66) were obtained from a local abattoir; mature oocytes (N = 35) and embryos (N = 41) were obtained by laparotomy

from adult hair ewes submitted to ovarian stimulation treatment. The CD44 mRNA was detected by hemi-nested PCR, after reverse transcription, while proteins were located by indirect immunofluorescence, using anti-human CD44 monoclonal antibody. Human lymphocytes and immature bovine oocytes were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Assessment of the oocyte nuclear stages as well as classification of the embryonic development stage were made with Hoechst

33342 staining. Indirect immunofluorescence detected CD44 expression on the surface of mature Nutlin-3 concentration oocytes and embryos; immature oocytes did not take up the stain. These findings were supported by the RT-PCR data, which showed no mRNA templates for CD44, even after two consecutive amplifications, in material from immature oocytes and cumulus cells. The CD44 amplicons were detected after a second hemi-nested PCR in mature oocytes and embryos. The finding of CD44 in mature oocytes and preimplantational embryos could reflect the expression profile of hyaluronic acid during terminal folliculogenesis and preimplantational embryo development in sheep.”
“Increasing the unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) content in milk fat is of primary importance to improve the long-term health of consumers. However, such changes can affect the crystallization properties of milk triacylglycerols (TAG) and their functional properties. The objectives of this study were to investigate the crystallization properties of milk fat as a function of its FA composition and emulsion droplet size upon storage at refrigerated temperature.

“Dexrazoxane (ICRF-187) has been clinically used to reduce

“Dexrazoxane (ICRF-187) has been clinically used to reduce doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity for more than 20 years. It has been proposed that dexrazoxane may act through its rings-opened hydrolysis product ADR-925, which can either remove iron from the iron-doxorubicin complex or bind to free iron, thus preventing iron-based oxygen radical formation. However, it is not known whether the antioxidant actions of dexrazoxane are totally dependent on its metabolization to its rings-opened hydrolysis product and whether dexrazoxane has any effect on the iron-independent oxygen free radical production. In this study,

we examined the scavenging effect of dexrazoxane on hydroxyl, superoxide, lipid, DPPH and ABTS(+) free radicals in vitro solution systems. The results demonstrated that dexrazoxane was an antioxidant that could effectively scavenge these free radicals and the scavenging effects of dexrazoxane did not require the Selleck FDA approved Drug Library enzymatic hydrolysis. In addition, dexrazoxane was capable to inhibit the generation superoxide and hydroxyl radicals in iron free reaction system, indicating that the antioxidant properties of dexrazoxane were not solely dependent on iron chelation. Thus the application of dexrazoxane should not be limited

to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Instead, as an effective antioxidant that has been clinically proven safe, dexrazoxane may be used in a broader spectrum of diseases that are known to be benefited by antioxidant treatments.”

is suggested to produce micro/nano fibers. Contrary to classical electro-spinning where a high voltage is applied to overcome the surface tension of the Taylor’s cone, in bubble-electrospinning, the voltage is applied to overcome the bubble’s surface tension, which mainly depends upon the size of the bubble. Instead of single jet, millions of charged jets are observed simultaneously. In this article, we design a single bubble-electrospinning to primarily study the effect of concentration on the spinning procedure. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is used in the experiment. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 119: 1161-1165, 2011″
“The occurrence of non-Hodgkin’s AZD7762 datasheet lymphoma in systemic sclerosis is an uncommon event. In our scleroderma cohort, a case of primary gastric B-cell lymphoma was diagnosed in 2007. The patient was a 45-year-old woman suffering from late systemic sclerosis sine scleroderma in whom non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma presented with progressive weight loss, later with gastrointestinal symptoms. Subsequently, we retrospectively analyzed the charts of 251 systemic sclerosis patients consecutively admitted to our Unit from 2000 to 2008 to search for other non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma cases (prevalence, 0.49%). Then we performed a Pubmed search for “”systemic sclerosis & non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma,”" limited to the English language.

After 18 days, all pigs were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimuri

After 18 days, all pigs were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium and euthanized five

days later. The addition of the binder to T-2 toxin contaminated feed counteracted the reduced weight gain of pigs caused by T-2 toxin and reduced the amount of Salmonella Typhimurium in the cecum and cecal contents. In vitro findings might indicate that the binder captures Salmonella. PXD101 We thus conclude that the binder counteracts T-2 toxin induced weight loss and possibly binds Salmonella, resulting in a reduced cecal colonization. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Block copolymers were prepared by the direct polycondensation of an aqueous lactic acid solution on monomethoxy or dihydroxyl poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in the absence of a catalyst. The resulting poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-PEG diblock and PLA-PEG-PLA triblock copolymers were characterized by various analytical techniques, including matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), gel permeation chromatography, and (1)H-NMR. The molecular structure between PLA-PEG and PLA-PEG-PLA could be distinguished after the calculation of the repeat unit masses and end-group masses

through the MALDI-TOF MS spectra. Interestingly, both copolymers could serve as a hydrophilic emulsifier to stabilize the squalene/water interfaces Autophagy Compound Library and yield narrowly distributed oil-in-water nanoparticles. In contrast, the pre-polymer PEG failed to stabilize the squalene/water interface under the same homogenization conditions. These features are of great interest for applications as bioactive agent delivery, especially for candidate vaccine antigens and lipophilic anticancer drugs. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 114: 509-5-16, 2009″
“P>The angiosperm extracellular matrix, or cell wall, is composed of a complex array of cellulose, hemicelluose, pectins and proteins, the modification and regulated synthesis of which check details are

essential for cell growth and division. The wall associated kinases (WAKs) are receptor-like proteins that have an extracellular domain that bind pectins, the more flexible portion of the extracellular matrix, and are required for cell expansion as they have a role in regulating cellular solute concentrations. We show here that both recombinant WAK1 and WAK2 bind pectin in vitro. In protoplasts pectins activate, in a WAK2-dependent fashion, the transcription of vacuolar invertase, and a wak2 mutant alters the normal pectin regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases. Microarray analysis shows that WAK2 is required for the pectin activation of numerous genes in protoplasts, many of which are involved in cell wall biogenesis. Thus, WAK2 plays a major role in signaling a diverse array of cellular events in response to pectin in the extracellular matrix.

Commonly employed diagnostic tests such as esophagogastroduodenos

Commonly employed diagnostic tests such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy and ambulatory pH or impedance monitoring in gastroesophageal reflux, are less useful in extraesophageal syndromes due to their poor sensitivity and specificity. In ERK phosphorylation contrast, empiric trials of PPI’s are shown to be cost effective; however, patients may require long-term treatment

to establish effectiveness. Diagnostic testing with pH and impedance monitoring are commonly reserved for patients with partial or poor response to the initial treatment with PPI’s. Poor response to PPI therapy may be an important indicator for non-gastroesophageal reflux causes for patients’ symptoms and should initiate a search for other potential causes.”
“Polar GaN(000 (1) over bar) (1 x 1), semipolar GaN(10 (1) over bar3) surfaces prepared in NH(3) vapor, and their disordered counterparts are investigated by reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy PXD101 purchase ( REELS) and low-energy electron diffraction. The REELS spectra are measured in a range of polar angles at electron kinetic energies of 200 and 1000 eV. The electron energy loss function is determined from the REELS within the framework of the semiclassical approach. Good

agreement between experimental and theoretical functions is achieved at all angles for the disordered GaN surfaces and for the ordered surfaces measured at a kinetic energy of 1000 eV. The agreement

is worse for the crystals measured at 200 eV, which is explained by the coherent scattering contributions at low energies. The optical constants of the GaN surfaces are derived from the computed dielectric functions: the optical properties of the (000 (1) over bar) and (10 (1) over bar3) surfaces are similar, except for differences in bandgap values, which may be due to observed steps on the (10 (1) over bar3) surface. The surface optical properties of a disordered GaN surface are found to be different from the GaN crystals. There are pronounced changes in the electronic band structure for disordered GaN due to the preferential sputtering of nitrogen. selleck kinase inhibitor (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3622674]“
“We investigated the fatty acid profiles of muscle from large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea R.) of different age. One- and two-year-old fish were cultured in floating net cages and sampled randomly for analysis. Moisture, protein, lipid and ash contents were determined by methods of Association of Analytical Chemist (AOAC) International. Fatty acid profile was determined by gas chromatography. Crude protein, fat, moisture and ash contents showed no significant differences between the two age groups.

The model considers adsorption, etching/desorption, lattice incor

The model considers adsorption, etching/desorption, lattice incorporation, and surface migration along and across the dimer rows. The reaction rates for these processes are re-evaluated in detail and their effect upon

the predicted growth rates and morphology are described. We find that for standard CVD diamond conditions, etching of sp(3) carbon species from the growing surface is negligible. Surface migration occurs rapidly, but is mostly limited to CH(2) species oscillating back and forth between two adjacent radical sites. Despite the average number of migration hops being in the thousands, the average surface diffusion length Dibutyryl-cAMP order for a surface species-before it either adds to the diamond lattice or is removed back to the gas phase-is <2 sites. beta-scission helps to smooth the surface, but is only a relatively minor process removing <2% of adsorbed species. At low substrate temperature, migration is negligible with film growth being dominated by direct adsorption (Eley-Rideal) processes. The resulting films are rough and spiky, reminiscent of amorphous carbon.

With increasing substrate temperature migration increases in significance until for temperatures >1000 K migration becomes the major process by which the surface becomes smoother. Langmuir-Hinshelwood processes are now the dominant growth mechanism, although 30% of growth still occurs via direct adsorption. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3437647]“
“Background: Low-birth-weight infants may have

impaired zinc status, but little is known about the effect Ruboxistaurin TGF-beta/Smad inhibitor of zinc supplementation.

Objective: The objective was to investigate the effect of daily zinc supplementation on morbidity and anthropometric status in hospital-born, low-birth-weight infants.

Design: In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 2052 hospital-born term infants with a birth weight <= 2500 g were randomly assigned to receive zinc or placebo. The zinc group received elemental zinc: 5 mg/d for those infants between ages 2 wk and 6 mo and 10 mg/d for those infants aged >6 mo. All-cause hospitalizations, prevalence of diarrhea, acute lower respiratory tract infections, visits to health care providers, weights, and lengths were ascertained at C59 3, 6, 9, and 12 mo of age.

Results: The supplement was consumed for >85% of the follow-up period. Mean plasma zinc at 12 mo of age was higher in the zinc group (100.2 mu g/dL) than in the control group (73.3 mu g/dL) (difference in means: 26.9; 95% CI: 19.6, 34.2). The 24-h and 7-d prevalence of diarrhea and acute lower respiratory tract infections was similar at 3, 6, 9, and 12 mo. Care-seeking for illness was significantly lower in the zinc group (difference in proportions: -5.7; 95% CI: -9.9, -1.4; P < 0.05) at 9 mo. The numbers of hospitalizations, weights, and lengths were all similar at all 4 assessments.

05) increased activities of cardiac marker enzymes in serum and d

05) increased activities of cardiac marker enzymes in serum and decreased activities in the heart, and increased activities of calcium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase and magnesium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase in the heart, and the activity of sodium potassium-dependent adenosine AZD9291 concentration triphosphatase decreased in the heart. ISO induction also showed a significant increase in the levels of glycoproteins in serum and the heart. Pretreatment with morin

(40 mg/kg) daily for a period of 30 days exhibited significant (P < 0.05) effects and altered these biochemical parameters positively compared to the other two doses. Thus, our study shows that morin has a protective role in ISO-induced MI in rats. The

observed effects might be due to the free radical-scavenging, antioxidant and membrane-stabilising properties of morin.”
“Degradation under high current stress of AlGaN quantum well based light emitting diodes emitting at 285 and 310 nm has been studied using electroluminescence, time-resolved photoluminescence and current-voltage experimental techniques. The measurements have revealed that during aging decrease of the emission SBC-115076 research buy intensity is accompanied by increase of the tunneling current, increase of the nitrogen vacancy concentration and partial compensation of the p-doping. The main role in the device degradation has been ascribed to formation of tunneling conductivity channels, probably, via activation of the closed core screw dislocations with the VX-680 supplier help of nitrogen vacancies. Carrier lifetimes in the quantum wells and the p-cladding were found to be unaffected by the aging process, suggesting that the nonradiative recombination has a lesser influence on the device degradation. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3590149]“
“Magnetic resonance

imaging (MRI) is being increasingly used in radiotherapy treatment planning (RTP). MRI has the potential to provide improved localisation of target volumes, leading to better tumour control rates and reduced normal tissue complications, due to capabilities including excellent soft-tissue discrimination and the ability to provide scans in which the image contrast is weighted according to different tissue properties. When computed tomography (CT)-MRI image registration is deployed, MR’s advantages are combined with CT’s geometrical security and its ability to provide electron density information. The quality of CT-MRI image registration can be favourably influenced by aspects of scan acquisition, including patient positioning/immobilisation and scan protocols. Appropriate protocols can ameliorate the possible presence of MR spatial distortions and other artefacts, but quality assurance of scanning remains essential. Here, the methods and quality assurance of CT-MR image registration are discussed.

Median survival was comparable between EIS (6 1 years) and PVS (6

Median survival was comparable between EIS (6.1 years) and PVS (6.5 years) patients. Outcomes for PA patients were dramatically worse, with a median survival of only 9.12 year (similar to 47 days). Needing additional intracardiac surgery or a heart transplant at the time of lung transplantation did not impact survival. The diagnosis of PA itself correlated with a worse outcome.

Conclusions: Outcomes in EIS and

PVS patients undergoing lung transplantation compare favorably IGF-1R inhibitor to that of all pediatric lung transplant recipients (median survival 4.3 years). For PA patients, their underlying pathology appears to make them high-risk candidates for lung transplantation. For the younger and acutely sicker PVS patients, lung transplantation is a viable therapeutic alternative. J Heart Lung Transplant 2009;28:1221-5. click here Copyright (C) 2009 by the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation.”

management of children with craniosynostosis is multidisciplinary and has evolved significantly over the past five decades. The treatment is primarily surgical. The anesthetic challenges continue to be the management of massive blood transfusion and prolonged anesthesia in small children, often further complicated by syndrome-specific issues. This two-part review aims to provide an overview of the anesthetic considerations for these children. The first part described the syndromes associated with craniosynostosis, the provision of services in the UK, surgical techniques, preoperative issues and induction and maintenance of anesthesia. This second part will explore hemorrhage control, the use of blood products, metabolic disturbance and postoperative issues.”
“A 20 year-old healthy female volunteer participated in a clinical Phase I and IIa safety and efficacy trial with candidate malaria vaccine PfLSA-3-rec adjuvanted with aluminium hydroxide. Eleven weeks after the third and last immunization she was experimentally infected by bites of Plasmodium falciparum-infected

mosquitoes. When the thick blood smear became positive, at day 11, she was treated with artemether/lumefantrine according to protocol. On day 16 post-infection i.e. two days after completion of treatment, she woke up with retrosternal chest pain. She was diagnosed as GDC0032 acute coronary syndrome and treated accordingly. She recovered quickly and her follow-up was uneventful. Whether the event was related to the study procedures such as the preceding vaccinations, malaria infection or antimalarial drugs remains elusive. However, the relation in time with the experimental malaria infection and apparent absence of an underlying condition makes the infection the most probable trigger. This is in striking contrast, however, with the millions of malaria cases each year and the fact that such complication has never been reported in the literature.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in an adolescent

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in an adolescent clinic in Lausanne, Switzerland, between March and May 2008. All female patients who had made at least one previous visit were eligible. Three hundred and eleven patients aged 12-22 years were included. We performed bivariate analysis selleckchem to compare satisfied and non-satisfied patients and constructed a log-linear model.

Results: Ninety-four percent of patients were satisfied. Satisfied female adolescents were significantly more likely to feel that their

complaints were heard, that the caregiver understood their problems, to have no change of physician, to have received the correct treatment/help and to follow the caregiver’s advice. The log-linear model highlighted four factors directly linked with patient satisfaction: outcome of care, continuity of care, adherence to treatment and the feeling of being understood.

Conclusions: The main point for female adolescent patient satisfaction lies in a long-term, trustworthy relationship with their caregiver. Confidentiality and accessibility were secondary for our patients.”
“Positron annihilation spectroscopy was employed for defect studies of “”Ti”"-based nanocomposites prepared 17-AAG research buy by high-energy

ball milling and consisting of Ti nanoparticles separated by hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) or boron (B) additive. The size distribution of nanoscopic holes in nanocomposites was determined directly from measurement of ortho-positronium (Ps) lifetimes. Chemical environment of defects was characterized using coincidence Doppler broadening. It was found that size of nanoscopic holes is reduced with increasing milling time in H(2)/He atmosphere and also probability of Ps formation in holes decreases. At the same time the Ti content in the vicinity of holes increases. This can be explained by (i) increased intermixing of Ti particles with h-BN or B additive and by (ii) filling the nanoscopic holes with absorbed

hydrogen. Analysis of obtained results showed that both these processes take place during milling of nanocomposites. In addition, it was found that the effect of filling the nanoscopic pores with hydrogen is enhanced in TiH(2) milled with h-BN or B in He atmosphere. Apoptosis Compound Library nmr Comparison of nanocomposites with h-BN and B additive showed that sufficiently long milling time leads to a similar size distribution of nanoscopic holes in Ti/h-BN and Ti/B, despite the fact that it differs substantially in the initial powders. However, density of nanoscopic holes in Ti/B is significantly lower than in Ti/h-BN nanocomposites.”
“Aims: To identify independent prognostic factors in patients with cancer of unknown primary site (CUP) who do not belong to prognostically favourable subsets, and to develop a prognostic index for predicting survival in these patients.

Furthermore, a clear reduction in the leakage current and improve

Furthermore, a clear reduction in the leakage current and improved fatigue characteristics were observed for ZSO-doped SBT films preannealed at 400 degrees C. Such improved electrical properties as reduced dielectric constant, leakage current, and coercive field for the ZSO-doped SBT films will be very beneficial for the low voltage operations in metal-ferroelectric-insulator-Si

“The biological activities and the determined major volatile components in the Magnolia grandiflora Vorinostat and M. virginiana flowers extracts were compared. Volatile components were detected in the essential oil by dynamic headspace sampling (HS). 2-Phenylethanol (40% and 61%) was found as the main constituent in the essential oil and HS samples of M. virginiana, respectively. In the M. grandiflora oil sample, (E,E)-farnesol (18%) and 2-phenylethanol Entinostat chemical structure (10%) were found as main constituents, whereas germacrene D (17%) and -bisabolene (17%) were the main components of the HS sample. The essential oil in M. virginiana displayed a moderate antioxidant activity relative to vitamin E, whereas both essential

oils were active against human lung carcinoma and breast carcinoma cell lines, even at concentrations higher than 200 mu gmL(-1).”
“Al doped p-type 6H silicon carbide was irradiated by low energy electrons to create primary defects. Two deep levels at E(V)+0.36 eV and E(V)+0.81 eV were created by this irradiation. Isochronal annealing study was carried out on the electron irradiated sample to investigate the annealing out of the two primary defects and the creation of thermal annealing-induced secondary defects. Four

more deep hole traps (0.45, 0.56, 0.74, and 0.71 eV above the valence band) were formed during the whole annealing process up to a temperature of 1600 degrees C. All the electron irradiated deep level defects were annealed out after the 1600 degrees C annealing.”
“This study assessed the production of a bacteriocin-like substance by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius S28, and evaluates its inhibitory effect against isolates of S. aureus from foods. All indicator isolates were sensitive to the substance produced from S. pseudintermedius S28, showing growth inhibition zones ranging from 14.2 to 28.3mm. The inhibitory substance has no effect against the producer strain. The inhibitory substance was affected by proteolytic enzymes, while glycolytic and lipolytic enzymes had no effect, suggesting that the active substance could be considered as a bacteriocin-like substance. From these results, S. pseudintermedius S28 could be an interesting producer of a bacteriocin-like substance capable of strongly inhibiting S. aureus.”
“Traditionally shear thickening fluid (STF) reinforced with Kevlar has been used to develop flexible armor. At the core of the STF-Kevlar composites is a mixture of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and silica particles.

Ligninwas regenerated fromwood dissolved in 1-ethyl-3-methylimida

Ligninwas regenerated fromwood dissolved in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride after 24 h at 150. C by precipitation with an antisolvent. The regenerated solid was analyzed by

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and compared with Indulin AT ( reference). Furthermore, the influence of the wood dissolution time, the antisolvent employed and the antisolvent/ wood solution ratio in the lignin recovery was studied.

CONCLUSIONS: The current CYT387 mouse study shows that 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride can be employed effectively to dissolve wood at 150. C for 24 h and lignin can be regenerated using methanol or ethanol as antisolvents. (C) 2012 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Background: It is common for authors to introduce a paper by demonstrating the importance of the clinical condition being addressed, usually by quoting data such as mortality and prevalence rates. Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) epidemiology is changing, and therefore such figures for AAA are subject to error. The aim of this study was to analyse the accuracy of AAA prevalence

and mortality citations in the contemporaneous literature.

Methods: Two separate literature searches were performed using PubMed to identify studies reporting either aneurysm prevalence or mortality. The first 40 articles or those published over the last 2 years were included in each search to provide a snapshot of current trends. For a prevalence citation to be appropriate, PI3K inhibitor a paper had to cite an original article publishing its own prevalence of AAA or a national report. In addition, the cited prevalence should match that published within the referenced article. These reported statistics were compared with the most recent data on aneurysm-related mortality.

Results: The prevalence of AAA was reported to be as low as 1% and as high as 12.7% (mean 5.7%, median 5%). Only 47.5% of studies had referenced original articles, national reports or NICE, and only 32.4% of cited prevalences matched those from the CAL-101 cell line referenced article. In total 5/40

studies were completely accurate. 80% of studies cited aneurysm mortality in the USA, with the majority stating 15,000 deaths per year (range 9,000 to 30,000). Current USA crude AAA mortality is 6,289 (2010).

Conclusion: References for AAA mortality and prevalence reported in the current literature are often inaccurate. This study highlights the importance of accurately reporting mortality and prevalence data and using up-to-date citations. (C) 2013 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: Downstream processing plays a crucial role in biotechnological production processes. Product concentration and purification require complex, multi-step operations, using significant amounts of chemical and auxiliary material. Today, design and optimization is important because the process development of biotechnological products is becoming more and more expensive.