(PACE 2011;34:998-1002)”
“We report a theoretical investigat

(PACE 2011;34:998-1002)”
“We report a theoretical investigation on the magnetocaloric properties of the cubic CsCl-type HoZn and ErZn compounds. Several anomalies in the magnetocaloric

quantities, Delta S(T) and Delta T(S), are observed due to spontaneous and/or field-induced spin reorientation transitions in these compounds. In HoZn, a discontinuity in the isothermal entropy change and in the adiabatic temperature change around T(1) = 23 K is ascribed to the spontaneous reorientation transition. Under a magnetic field variation from 0 up to 2 T in the < 110 > and < 100 > directions, an almost table-like behavior in Delta S(T) is predicted between T(1) and T(SR1). The peak around the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition temperature in the magnetocaloric quantities shows a dependence on the direction of the applied field. For mu(0)Delta H = 2 T, it reaches 11.9 J/kg K (magnetic field along Selleck β-Nicotinamide the < 111 > direction) and 7.9 J/kg K (magnetic field in the < 100 > direction). In ErZn there is also a dependence of Delta S(T) and Delta T(S) on field direction. From the analysis of the spin reorientations in both compounds we have GSK690693 built spin reorientation diagrams that summarize their temperature and field dependence. Our theoretical approach is based on a model Hamiltonian

that includes exchange, crystal field, and quadrupolar interactions. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3554725]“
“Background: The increasing use of remote monitoring with the associated large retrievable databases provides a unique opportunity to analyze observations on implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

(ICD) therapies. Adjudication of a large number of stored ICD electrograms (EGMs) presents a unique challenge. The ALTITUDE study group was designed to use the LATITUDE remote monitoring system to evaluate ICD patient outcomes across the United States.

Methods and Results: Of 81,081 patients on remote monitoring, a random sample of 2,000 patients having 5,279 shock episodes was selected. The ALTITUDE EGM review committee was comprised of seven electrophysiologists LY2157299 datasheet from four institutions. An online EGM adjudication system was designed. Episodes were classified as appropriate (70% of shock episodes) or inappropriate ICD therapies (30%). Light’s Kappa was used to assess agreement.

Interobserver and intraobserver Kappa scores for dual-chamber ICDs were 0.84 (0.71-0.91) and 0.89 (0.82-0.95), consistent with substantial agreement. Interobserver and intraobserver Kappa scores for single-chamber ICDs were 0.61 (0.54-0.67) and 0.69 (0.59-0.79). The rhythm categories of “”nonsustained arrhythmia”" and “”polymorphic and monomorphic ventricular tachycardia”" resulted in the greatest degree of discordant adjudication between reviewers.

From each UF, macroscopic volume and correspondent fractional ani

From each UF, macroscopic volume and correspondent fractional anisotropy (FA) (an index of microscopic white matter integrity) were derived for the whole tract, and for the frontal and temporal portion Compound Library high throughput of the UF. No significant between-group volumetric differences were found. In contrast, FA values from the UF were reduced bilaterally in patients with dementia (either AD or DLB) compared to HS. In addition, patients with AD showed reduced FA values compared to those with a-MCI. No significant FA difference was found between AD and DLB patients, nor between

a-MCI and HS. Finally, in all patients, UF FA values were associated with neuropsychological scores at tests exploring memory and executive functions. This study indicates that the UF is remarkably damaged Napabucasin in patients at the stage of dementia, independently from the diagnostic form. Moreover, this

UF damage seems to be driven by temporal involvement in AD, for which a prodromal stage (a-MCI) is defined.”
“According to previous studies endogenous ouabain (EO) closely correlates with high blood pressure, congestive heart failure and kidney disease in humans. Our aims were to analyse associations between plasma, urinary EO level and various markers of cardiovascular damage in treated hypertensive patients. Forty-one adult patients with hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus (DM) and/or chronic kidney disease (CKD) were studied. We assessed plasma and urinary EO, pro-brain natriuretic peptide and catecholamines, profile of ambulatory blood pressure monitor and cardiovascular status by echocardiography and echo-tracking. The highest level of plasma EO 19.7 +/- 9.5 pmol l(-1)) was measured in hypertensive patients with DM and CKD. The nighttime mean arterial blood pressure independently correlated with the level of plasma EO (P = 0.004), while independent predictor of the beta-stiffness of carotid artery was the urinary EO (P = 0.011). Elevated level

of EO was associated with nighttime blood pressure and subclinical organ damage in treated hypertensive patients, suggesting possible role of EO Selleck Mizoribine in the pathogenesis of impaired diurnal blood pressure rhythm and arterial stiffness. Journal of Human Hypertension (2011) 25, 122-129; doi:10.1038/jhh.2010.24; published online 11 March 2010″
“The detection of circulating galactomannan (GM) in serum samples is an important step in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA). The assay has been mainly explored in neutropenic patients, and is now used to monitor patients at high risk for IA. However, the performance of the assay varies greatly among studies. The objective of this study was to explore the impact of the neutrophil count on the GM serum index at the time of IA diagnosis. Ninety-nine episodes of proven or probable, microbiologically documented IA in 91 patients with haematological malignancies were studied retrospectively.

Methods: This is a randomized trial Following a brief instructio

Methods: This is a randomized trial. Following a brief instructional session, undergraduate nursing students, assigned to group A (SSM) and group B

(descriptive teaching method), undertook a written test in cardiac rhythm recognition, immediately after the educational intervention (initial exam). Participants were also examined with an unannounced retention test (final exam), one month after instruction. Altogether 134 students completed the study. Interpretation accuracy for each cardiac arrhythmia was assessed.

Results: Mean score at the initial exam was 8.71 +/- 1.285 for group A and 8.74 +/- 1.303 for group B. Mean score at the final exam was 8.25 +/- 1.46 for group A vs 7.84 +/- click here 1.44 for group B. Overall results showed that the SSM was equally effective with the descriptive teaching method. The study showed that in each group bradyarrhythmias were identified correctly by more students than tachyarrhythmias. No significant difference between the two teaching methods was seen for any specific cardiac arrhythmia.


The SSM effectively develops staff competency for interpreting common cardiac arrhythmias in students without ECG knowledge. More research is needed to support this conclusion and the method’s effectiveness must be evaluated if being implemented to trainee groups with preexisting basic ECG interpretation knowledge. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Dogs have accompanied humankind for thousands of years. They share the same environment, and thus are exposed https://www.selleckchem.com/products/VX-680(MK-0457).html to the same environmental factors such as air pollution, Citarinostat nmr tobacco smoke, and various chemicals. Recent development of veterinary care has led to a significant extension of dogs’ lifespan and allowed the diagnosis and treatment of a growing number of different diseases in this species. Among all diseases in dogs, cancer is considered the main cause of mortality, with lymphoproliferative

disorders accounting for up to 30% of all canine cancers. Some of them, such as non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and lymphocytic leukemia, are very similar in the etiology, pathogenesis and response to treatment to the diseases occurring in humans. Due to anatomical and physiological similarities to humans, the dog is a useful model for the study of new therapeutic strategies for humans. Studies on the canine neoplasia are currently limited by the lack of well-characterized and widely available cell lines; thus, recently obtained canine NHL cell lines may become a valuable model for such studies. Investigation of their sensitivity to the antiproliferative effects of different factors should allow the creation of a database similar to the existing classification of human leukemias and lymphomas.

The stratification impacted on dormancy release in three differen

The stratification impacted on dormancy release in three different ways: (i) dormancy was consistently released with prolonged stratification time when stratified at temperatures of < 15 degrees C; (ii) at 15 degrees C and 20 degrees C, the stratification effect initially increased, and then decreased with extended time; and (iii) stratification at 25

degrees C only reduced germinable seeds. These behaviours indicated that stratification could not only release primary dormancy but also induce secondary dormancy in grape seed. The rate of dormancy release changed linearly in two phases, while induction increased exponentially with increasing temperature. The thermal time approaches effectively quantified dormancy release only at suboptimal temperature, but a quantitative method to integrate the occurrence of dormancy release and induction at the same time could describe it well at either sub- or supraoptimal temperatures. The regression Daporinad nmr with the percentage of germinable PKC412 concentration seeds

versus stratification temperature or water content within both the sub- and supraoptimal range revealed how the optimal temperature (T-so) and water content (W-so) for stratification changed. The T-so moved from 10.6 degrees C to 5.3 degrees C with prolonged time, while W-so declined from > 0.40 g H2O g DW-1 at 5 degrees C to similar to 0.23 g H2O g DW-1 at 30 degrees C. Dormancy release in grape seeds can occur across a very wide range of conditions, which has important implications for their ability to adapt to a changeable environment in Selleck Prexasertib the wild.”
“Changes in a perfluorosulfonated acid polymer membrane in membrane electrode assemblies were studied after different times under stationary

conditions in fuel cells. A large series of characterizations demonstrated changes in the morphology, mechanical behavior, and thermal stability upon aging. Overall, the membrane evolution could be mainly attributed to both chemical degradation and cationic contamination. The reduction in the membrane thickness, detected by scanning electron microscopy, was ascribed to a radical unzipping mechanism and polymer chain erosion after 900 h in service. An additional monotonic decrease in the number of C(tertiary)F groups was observed even at 400 h. In parallel, membranes were cation-contaminated, and this led to drastic changes in the thermal and mechanical properties in the first stage of fuel-cell operation. The pollution cations were shown to have Lewis acid strengths close to 0.25 and thus strongly interacted with sulfonate anions of the membrane. The kinetic dependence of these membrane modifications and the influence of the platinum band were also examined. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 117: 2121-2132, 2010″
“We derive the calibration constants necessary for using single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as nanoscale mass sensors. The CNT resonators are assumed to be either in cantilevered or in bridged configurations.

Well sintered glass-ceramics with diopside as the primary crystal

Well sintered glass-ceramics with diopside as the primary crystalline phase were obtained where the amount of diopside varied with the heating conditions. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3239852]“
“Nano-/microcomposites based on polypropylene/montmorillonite/calcium carbonate were prepared by melt mixing. Their structures and properties were characterized by small-angle X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, and rheological measurements. The intercalation

degree was found to be dependent on the compatibilizer content and the processing temperature. The addition of the organoclay slightly increased Cl-amidine cell line the melt crystallization temperature of polypropylene, acting as nucleating agents, and improved the degree of crystallinity. The rheological tests showed that nanocomposites increased the check details complex viscosity when compared with the microcomposites with the same filler content and exhibited a pronounced shear-thinning behavior in the low frequency range. A Carreau-Yasuda model was used to model the rheological behavior of these materials. The nano-/microcomposites showed a significant improvement (about 50%) of the Young’s modulus, when compared with microcomposites with

the same filler content due to the intercalation or exfoliation of the organoclay anti the enhanced degree of crystallinity. Moreover, some formulations showed an enhancement of elongation at break and ultimate strength. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 113: 3360-3367, 2009″
“Background: Long-term heart failure (HF) treatment has been shown to result in reverse chamber remodeling. However, it is unknown whether Kinase Inhibitor Library chemical structure sizes of cardiac chambers acutely change during HF therapy and whether these changes are associated with favorable clinical outcomes.

Methods and Results: Using the Evaluation Study of Congestive Heart Failure and Pulsmonary Artery Catheterization Effectiveness (ESCAPE) trial database, echocardiographic parameters at baseline and discharge, changes from baseline to discharge, and their association with the combined endpoint of death or HF

rehospitalization (HFH) at 6 months were evaluated in patients admitted with acute decompensated HF (ADHF). Also, the correlation between changes in invasive hemodynamic parameters compared with changes in echocardiographic parameters was analyzed. During the treatment of ADHF, right atrium, right ventricle, and inferior vena cava (IVC) sizes decreased acutely. Mitral regurgitation severity and mitral inflow parameters also improved significantly. However, the majority of acute changes in echocardiographic parameters did not have an impact on clinical outcome, except for the reduction in left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, which was associated with a reduction in the combined outcome of HFH or death.

THA showed reproducible XRPD profiles, but THM

THA showed reproducible XRPD profiles, but THM www.selleckchem.com/products/bay80-6946.html showed fluctuating intensities

in some specific peaks in the profiles. The linear calibration models were evaluated based on calibration XRPD datasets of the standard materials by various methods. In the result based on validation XRPD datasets, the order of the mean bias and the mean accuracy were peak height > peak area > Wakelin’s > PCR, indicating that PCR was the best method to correct sample crystal orientation. The effectiveness of the PCR method in construction of calibration models was discussed by a scientific approach based on regression vectors.”
“Epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) triglycerides were reacted with maleinized polybutadiene (MMPBD) to give plant-oil-based thermoset polymers. MMPBD samples were of two different molecular weights [high-molecular-weight maleinized polybutadiene (MMPBD-H), maleate content = 10%, number-average molecular weight

(M(n)) = 9000, and low-molecular-weight maleinized polybutadiene (MMPBD-L), maleate content 15%, M(n) = 5000]. To increase the crosslink density of the product, a free-radical initiator, benzoyl peroxide, was added to this mixture to further crosslink MMPBD through its double bonds. The characterizations of the products were done by dynamic mechanical analysis, find more differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and IR spectroscopy. The ESO-MMPBD polymers were crosslinked rigid infusible polymers. ESO-MMPBD-H-1 : 1 and ESO-MMPBD-L-1

: 1 showed glass-transition temperature values at -23, 78 and -17, 64 degrees C, respectively, whereas the storage moduli of the two polymers at 25 degrees C were 13 and 16 MPa, respectively. The storage moduli of the polymers remained the same or decreased with the addition of a free-radical initiator. The storage moduli also decreased with increasing ESO concentration above a 1 : 1 epoxy-to-anhydride molar ratio. The surface hardness increased dramatically, and the equilibrium swelling ratio decreased with the addition of free-radical initiator. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 120: 116-123, 2011″
“Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive β-Nicotinamide Others inhibitor inflammatory lung disease associated with increasing morbidity and mortality and an economic burden that stretches beyond the patient to healthcare systems. Avoiding exacerbations and subsequent hospitalizations is an important clinical aim and can avoid significant costs associated with the disease. International guidelines recommend the addition of an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) to a long-acting beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonist (LABA) for patients with severe to very severe COPD and a history of exacerbations.

The conversion rate to laparotomy was 6% (3/50) However, there w

The conversion rate to laparotomy was 6% (3/50). However, there were no serious consequences in converted cases. The operating time was 263.7 +/- A 45.0 min. The intraoperative blood loss was 94.5 +/- A 106.5 g. The total number of regional lymph nodes retrieved was 34.7 SNS-032 +/- A 12.2. A significant improvement

in the blood loss was only noted after the first 25 procedures. All patients are alive and disease-free after a median follow-up of 38.8 months.

An adequate training program, including site visits by expert surgeons, in conjunction with basic laparoscopy skills and solid backgrounds in open gastrectomy from the perspective of the trainees are currently key to the successful and safe implementation of LAG. Whether the procedure is oncologically feasible remains to be confirmed by long-term follow-up.”
“In this paper,

the yielding capacity of four willow (Salix viminalis L.) clones grown as short-rotation plantations in a four-year cutting cycle is presented. Some chemical parameters of check details harvested biomass were analyzed, i.e. its elemental composition (C, H, S) and contents of cellulose, lignin and hemicelluloses. The yield of dry oven biomass amounted on average to 14.1 Mg ha(-1) year(-1) and its gain of energy was equal to 242.3 GJ ha(-1) year(-1). Willow of clone UWM 042 showed the highest (633 cm) and the thickest (31.0 mm) stems and the biomass yield of this clone (16.4 Mg ha(-1) year(-1)) was significantly higher than the yield of cv. Start (14.0 Mg ha(-1) year(-1)). The moisture content of biomass amounted on average to 46.9% while ash content was 2.1% in oven dry biomass

and the lowest in the trial ash content was found in the biomass of clone UWM 042. The highest content of carbon (52.2% C ODM) and hydrogen (7.1% H ODM) was found in biomass samples of the clone UWM 033. The content of cellulose in the biomass of the studied clones (ranged from 43.9 to 45.3%) was higher while lignin content (19.9-20.7% ODM) was lower than in the biomass of cv. Start taken as standard. Biomass obtained from the new clone UWM 042 showed higher yield and better parameters compared to cv. Start (registered in Poland). (c) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: GSK923295 manufacturer Recruiting large and representative samples of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors is important for gaining accurate data regarding the prevalence of unmet needs in this population. This study aimed to describe recruitment rates for AYAs recruited through a cancer registry with particular focus on: active clinician consent protocols, reasons for clinicians not providing consent and the representativeness of the final sample.

Methods: Adolescents and young adults aged 14 to 19 years inclusive and listed on the cancer registry from January 1 2002 to December 31 2007 were identified.

The geographical distribution of haplogroups was also outlined to

The geographical distribution of haplogroups was also outlined to provide systematic information on cattle genetic resources.”
“Revealing the relationships between perceptual representations in the brain and mechanisms of adult perceptual learning is of great importance, potentially leading to significantly improved training techniques both for improving skills in the general population and for ameliorating deficits in special populations. selleckchem In this review, we summarize the essentials of reverse hierarchy theory for perceptual learning in the visual and auditory modalities and describe the theory’s implications for designing improved training

procedures, for a variety of goals and populations.”
“Transseptal catheterization is used by interventional cardiologists to gain access in the left atrium. This technique was initially introduced for left-sided pressure measurements and has been integrated in a variety of procedures including left atrial ablations and percutaneous mitral valvuloplasties. The establishment of catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation as an effective treatment strategy has brought transseptal catheterization back to the limelight. Technique refinements, introduction of adjunctive imaging tools, and enrichment of available technical equipment have simplified the procedure. In the present article we review the technique of transseptal catheterization, presenting tips and caveats that could be of value for

safe and successful transseptal punctures. (PACE 2010; 33:231-242).”
“Background Nearly 20% of anesthesia-related pediatric cardiopulmonary arrests (CPAs) occur during emergence or recovery. The aims of this study were to describe

beta-catenin activation (i) the nature of pediatric postanesthesia care unit (PACU) CPA and subsequent outcomes and (ii) factors associated with mortality. Methods Cardiopulmonary Arrests occurring in PACU in children (<18years) were identified from the American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines (R)-Resuscitation, multicenter CPA registry. Demographics, underlying conditions, cause(s) of CPA, monitoring, interventions and outcomes were extracted. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize data, and odds ratios (OR) with confidence intervals (CI) were calculated as appropriate to compare Ulixertinib cost survivors and nonsurvivors. Results Twenty seven CPA events were included: 67% in children <5years and 30% in infants (<1year). Most children (78%) had underlying comorbidities, including 15% with congenital heart disease. Respiratory issues were the most frequent causes of CPA (44%), but cardiac/hemodynamic causes were associated with nonsurvival (P=0.01). Nonsurvival was also associated with older age (P=0.02), weekend occurrence (P<0.01), nonpediatric setting (P=0.02) and occurrence at night (P=0.04). Conclusions This study identified similar risk factors and underlying causes as described in previous reports of pediatric perioperative CPA, with higher mortality following a cardiac/hemodynamic cause.

Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that the maximum degradation

Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that the maximum degradation temperature has been shifted to higher region for in situ composites compared to PMMA itself-and the ex situ composites indicated find more better thermal stability. X-ray diffraction study of composites also indicates that in situ composites functionalization incorporated MWCNT particles in the polymer chain. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 120: 2954-2961, 2011″
“PURPOSE: To develop a method to process Scheimpflug images to estimate higher-order variations in ocular surfaces.


New England College of Optometry, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

METHODS: Zernike polynomial functions were used rather than lower-order surface functions to fit the ocular surfaces to evaluate higher-order variations. A related ray-tracing method was developed to correct optical distortion

of the Scheimpflug image.

RESULTS: The new method to process Scheimpflug images showed higher-order variations in the posterior corneal surface. In a simulation, ignoring higher-order variations in the anterior corneal surface, as in previous studies, produced an error as high as 202% for some estimated Zernike coefficients of the posterior corneal surface.

CONCLUSION: The results indicate that it is necessary to correct refractive distortion in Scheimpflug images using higher-order surface functions and that the method developed ARN-509 in this study can be used to process scheimpflug images for measurement of ocular wavefront aberrations.”
“P>The regulation of pollen tube growth by the phospholipid phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P(2)) is not well understood. HM781-36B The Arabidopsis genome encodes two type A phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P) 5-kinases, PIP5K10 and PIP5K11, which are exclusively expressed

in pollen and produce PtdIns(4,5)P(2)in vitro. Fluorescence-tagged PIP5K10 and PIP5K11 localized to lateral subapical plasma membrane microdomains in tobacco pollen tubes in a pattern closely resembling the distribution of PtdIns(4,5)P(2,) with the exception of notably weaker association at the extreme apex. Overexpression of PIP5K10 or PIP5K11 in tobacco pollen tubes resulted in severe tip swelling and altered actin fine structure similar to that reported for overexpression of tobacco Nt-Rac5, a monomeric GTPase known to regulate the actin cytoskeleton. Increased sensitivity of Arabidopsis pip5k10 pip5k11 double mutant pollen tubes to Latrunculin B (LatB) further supports a role for type A PI4P 5-kinases in controlling the actin cytoskeleton. Despite the disruption of both its type A PI4P 5-kinases, the pip5k10 pip5k11 double mutant was fertile, indicating that one of the remaining type B PI4P 5-kinase isoforms might be functionally redundant with PIP5K10 and PIP5K11.

Duration of current episode, baseline disability and educational

Duration of current episode, baseline disability and educational level accounted for 15 % of the variation in disability at 12 months.

During a period of 12 months, patients with chronic LBP presenting to a private, community-based, group exercise program improved markedly, with greater improvements in disability than pain. The predictors investigated accounted for only 10 and 15 % of pain and disability outcomes, respectively.”
“Postmenopausal osteoporosis is the commonest cause of osteoporosis. It is associated with increased free radical activity induced by the oestrogen-deficient state. Therefore, supplementation with palm-oil-derived tocotrienols, a potent antioxidant, should be able to prevent this bone loss.

Our earlier studies have shown that tocotrienol was able to prevent and even reverse osteoporosis due PF-562271 to various factors, including oestrogen deficiency. In this study we compared the effects of supplementation with palm tocotrienol mixture or calcium on bone biomarkers and bone formation rate in ovariectomised (oestrogen-deficient) female rats. Our results showed that palm tocotrienols significantly

increased bone formation in oestrogen-deficient rats, seen by increased double-labeled surface (dLS/Bs), reduced single-labeled surface (sLS/BS), increased mineralizing surface (MS/BS), increased mineral apposition rate (MAR), and an overall increase in bone formation rate (BFR/BS). These effects were not seen in the group supplemented with calcium. However, no significant changes were seen in the selleck serum levels of the bone biomarkers, osteocalcin, and cross-linked C-telopeptide of type I collagen, CTX. In conclusion, palm tocotrienol is more effective than calcium in preventing oestrogen-deficient bone loss. Further studies are needed to determine the potential of tocotrienol as an antiosteoporotic agent.”
“The predictive ability of the STarT Back Tool (SBT) in secondary care settings

has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the SBT’s predictive ability in a Danish secondary care setting Dibutyryl-cAMP and compare this to a Danish primary care setting.

Poor clinical outcome at 6 months (> 30 points on a 0-100 Roland Morris Disability Scale) was calculated in secondary care (n = 960) and primary care (n = 172) cohorts. The cohorts were stratified into SBT subgroups and estimates of additional risk for poor outcome were calculated [relative risk (RR), unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios]. The discriminative ability was determined using the area under the curve statistic.

In secondary care 69.0 % and in primary care 40.2 % had poor outcome on activity limitation. Although significant, the predictive ability of the SBT in secondary care (medium-risk RR 1.5, high-risk RR 1.7) was not as strong as in primary care (medium-risk RR 2.3, high-risk RR 3.5). Adjusting for episode duration and pain intensity only changed the predictive ability marginally in secondary care.