of the storage biology of desiccation tolerant tree seeds are uncommon. On the Seed Information Database (SID) there are viability constants (used to describe the sensitivity of seed lifespan to temperature and moisture) for only 16 tree species (RBG Kew, 2014b). Accounting for the variation in desiccation tolerance, it is possible to compare estimated seed lifespans under a storage temperature that may be accessible to foresters, for example 10 °C, and the lowest safe moisture content (MC) for the seed. Table 1 shows that the estimated seed half-lives Z-VAD-FMK research buy (time for viability to fall from 97.9% to 50%) varies from 0.95 and 1.36 years for Dipterocarpus alatus (Gurjum tree) and Araucaria columnaris (Cook pine), respectively, at the short end of the scale to 324 and 342 years for Acer platanoides (Norway maple) and Liquidambar styraciflua (sweet gum), respectively, at the other end of the scale. The shortest life-spans Pictilisib datasheet are driven
by the need to store the seeds partially hydrated at 10–17% MC. In contrast, the longest lived seeds can be stored much drier at around 3% MC. It should be noted that this comparison is used to illustrate a point and that to compare precisely inter-species performance would require accounting for the effects of oil on the equilibrium moisture status of the seed; and as Table 1 shows, ‘seed’ (not always morphologically a seed) oil content varies enormously between species. Nonetheless, it is clear that seed life-span beyond the life-span of the tree is possible. This will be more the case when internationally-agreed Thymidine kinase long-term seed bank
(3–7% MC and −20 °C) conditions can be used, rather than the 10 °C used in this analysis. Interestingly, there are well documented examples of long-term ‘tree’ seed survival of hundreds of years, validated by carbon dating. The longest lived ‘tree’ species seed that germinated is that of Phoenix dactylifera (date palm), recovered from an archaeological excavation at Masada, near the Dead Sea, and dated at 2000 years old ( Sallon et al., 2008). In addition, some seeds of three woody species of the Cape Flora of South Africa were germinated after about 200 years museum storage under non-ideal conditions. The species, still requiring species verification, belong to the genera Acacia, Lipparia (both in the Fabaceae) and Leucospermum (Proteaceae) ( Daws et al., 2007). In 2013, the UK launched its first native tree seed bank at the RBG, Kew to protect against species and genetic diversity loss due to the interrelated impacts of climate change and increasing threat of pests and diseases (RBG Kew, 2014a).