This survey also involves compilation of serological ABO and Rhes

This survey also involves compilation of serological ABO and Rhesus blood group data from RakaiPaaka Iwi tribal

members for comparison with those generated during our molecular blood group study. We observed perfect consistency learn more between results obtained from all molecular methods for blood group genotyping. The A, O, DCcEe, DCCee, MNs, K-k+, Jk(a+b-), Jk(a+b+), Fy(a+b-), Fy(a+b+), Di(a+b-), Co(a+b-) and Do(a-b+) were predominant blood group phenotypes in both Polynesians and Maori. Overall, our survey data show only small differences in distributions of blood group phenotypes between Polynesian and Maori groups and their subgroups. These differences might be associated with selection, population history and gene flow from Europeans. selleck chemicals llc In each case, we estimate that patients with certain blood groups have a very low probability of an exact phenotypic match, even if the patients were randomly transfused with blood from donors of their own ethnicity. The best way to avoid haemolytic transfusion

reaction in such cases is to perform a pretransfusion cross-match and recruit increased numbers of donors with rare phenotype profiles. The conclusion of this study is that application of molecular method covering as many known variants as possible may help to improve the accuracy blood group genotyping and potentially conserve the routine requirements of transfusion centres.”
“Background\n\nUlcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon for which current treatments are not universally effective. One additional treatment may be tofacitinib (CP-690,550), an oral inhibitor

of Janus kinases 1, 2, and 3 with in vitro functional specificity for kinases 1 and 3 over kinase 2, which is expected to block signaling involving gamma chain-containing cytokines including interleukins 2, 4, 7, 9, 15, and 21. These cytokines are integral to lymphocyte activation, function, and proliferation.\n\nMethods\n\nIn a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial, we evaluated the efficacy of tofacitinib in 194 adults with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis. Patients were randomly assigned to receive tofacitinib at a dose of 0.5 mg, 3 mg, 10 mg, or 15 mg or placebo twice daily for 8 weeks. The primary outcome was a clinical response at OSI-744 datasheet 8 weeks, defined as an absolute decrease from baseline in the score on the Mayo scoring system for assessment of ulcerative colitis activity (possible score, 0 to 12, with higher scores indicating more severe disease) of 3 or more and a relative decrease from baseline of 30% or more with an accompanying decrease in the rectal bleeding subscore of 1 point or more or an absolute rectal bleeding subscore of 0 or 1.\n\nResults\n\nThe primary outcome, clinical response at 8 weeks, occurred in 32%, 48%, 61%, and 78% of patients receiving tofacitinib at a dose of 0.5 mg (P = 0.39), 3 mg (P = 0.55), 10 mg (P = 0.10), and 15 mg (P < 0.

36; 95% CI, 1 04-1 78; P(interaction) = 0 08) and women (OR, 1 83

36; 95% CI, 1.04-1.78; P(interaction) = 0.08) and women (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.26-2.67; P(interaction) = 0.12).\n\nConclusions: These results suggest that, of the specific components of MetS, those that capture impaired glucose uptake increased the odds of metachronous neoplasia. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009; 18(4):1134-43)”
“The aim of this study was to explore associations between chronotype and the Three-Factor-Eating-Questionnaire.

We found a positive association between morningness and dietary restraint and negative correlations between morningness and disinhibition and perceived hunger. Further, there was an association between morningness and flexible control. BMI tended to be negatively associated with morningness and correlated with disinhibition and with the sub-scale RC7. No association was found between BMI and cognitive restraint, hunger and flexible control. Also, no relationships Tariquidar cell line existed between sleep length on weekdays or on weekends and BMI OF eating. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Aims:\n\nTo assess the applicability of the 16S-23S rDNA internal spacer selleck compound regions (ISR) as targets for PCR detection of Azospirillum ssp. and the phytostimulatory

plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria seed inoculant Azospirillum lipoferum CRT1 in soil.\n\nMethods and Results:\n\nPrimer sets were designed after sequence analysis of the ISR of A. lipoferum CRT1 and Azospirillum brasilense Sp245. The primers fAZO/rAZO targeting the Azospirillum genus successfully yielded PCR amplicons

(400-550 bp) from Azospirillum strains but also from certain non-Azospirillum strains in vitro, therefore they were not appropriate to monitor indigenous Azospirillum soil populations. The primers fCRT1/rCRT1 targeting A. lipoferum CRT1 generated a single 249-bp PCR product but could also amplify other strains from the same species. selleckchem However, with DNA extracts from the rhizosphere of field-grown maize, both fAZO/rAZO and fCRT1/rCRT1 primer sets could be used to evidence strain CRT1 in inoculated plants by nested PCR, after a first ISR amplification with universal ribosomal primers. In soil, a 7-log dynamic range of detection (102-108 CFU g-1 soil) was obtained.\n\nConclusions:\n\nThe PCR primers targeting 16S-23S rDNA ISR sequences enabled detection of the inoculant A. lipoferum CRT1 in field soil.\n\nSignificance and Impact of the Study:\n\nConvenient methods to monitor Azospirillum phytostimulators in the soil are lacking. The PCR protocols designed based on ISR sequences will be useful for detection of the crop inoculant A. lipoferum CRT1 under field conditions.”
“An investigation was carried out for in vitro degradation of fluoranthene by four bacterial strains (PSM6, PSM7, PSM10 and PSM11) isolated from the petroleum sludge. Although all the strains registered their growth in MSM with 100 ppm fluoranthene, PSM11 growth was better than other strains.

When the ionic liquid is utilized as a cathode electrode, the pos

When the ionic liquid is utilized as a cathode electrode, the positive ions in the plasma are irradiated to the ionic liquid and cause the physical and chemical reactions of the ionic liquid at the interface. The plasma ion irradiation can easily be controlled by changing the plasma parameter and is found to be effective for the metal

nanoparticle Acalabrutinib Angiogenesis inhibitor synthesis in comparison with an electron irradiation.”
“High-speed bogie frame is a key mechanical component in a train system. The reliability analysis of the bogie is necessary to the safety of high-speed train. Reliability analysis of a bogie frame was considered. The equivalent load method was employed to account for random repeated loads in structural reliability analysis. Degradation of material strength was regarded as a Gamma process. The probabilistic perturbation method was, then, employed for response moment computation. Example of a high-speed train bogie structure under time-variant load was employed for reliability and sensitivity analyses. Monte-Carlo simulation verifies the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method in time-variant reliability analysis. The analysis results show that the reliability calculation considering the strength degradation and repeated load is closer to the practicality than the method of considering reliability AZD8931 chemical structure calculation only. Its decreasing velocity is faster than the traditional

reliability. The reliability sensitivity value

changes over time. The analysis results provide a variation trend of reliability and sensitivity to design and Kinase Inhibitor Library research buy usage of bogie frame.”
“Objective: A study was made of the influence of breastfeeding and bottle feeding on development of the dental arches and occlusion in an infant population. Subjects and Methods: In total, 298 infants (163 girls and 135 boys) were selected from a series of 1,643 preschool children in Seville, Spain, evaluating the type of feeding received after birth (breastfeeding only or bottle feeding only), the duration of such feeding, and its influence upon the parameters that define occlusion of the dental arches. The study comprised a full exploration of the stomatognathic system of the infants and a questionnaire for the parents. SPSS Statistical Package software (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL) was used to analyze the results. Results: In total, 109 children were exclusively breastfed (36.6%) for an average of 6.85.8 months, whereas 189 children were exclusively bottle fed (63.4%) for an average of 17.99 +/- 11.5 months. On comparing the occlusal parameters of the two groups, the most beneficial effects (straight terminal plane, canine class I relationship, diastemas, and primate spaces) corresponded to the infants who were breastfed. Conclusions: Breastfed infants show better development of the dental arches and a lesser incidence of dental occlusion disorders than bottle-fed infants.

8%, 63%)]} was significantly lower than periodontally healthy sam

8%, 63%)]} was significantly lower than periodontally healthy samples 62% [IQR (51.3%, 74%)], p=0.007 and gingivitis biopsies 63% [IQR (55%, 74%)], p=0.02. The transcriptional level of IFNG in periodontitis biopsies was 1.96-fold and significantly higher than tissues with periodontal health (p=0.04). Although the mRNA level from experimental gingivitis samples exhibited an 8.5-fold increase as compared with periodontally healthy samples, no significant methylation difference was observed in experimental gingivitis sample.\n\nConclusions\n\nA hypomethylation profile within IFNG promoter region is related to an increase of IFNG transcription present in the chronic periodontitis

biopsies, while such an increase of IFNG in experimentally induced gingivitis seems independent of promoter methylation alteration.”
“Elective bilateral exposure of iliac arteries during endovascular or laparoscopic Selleck A1155463 aneurysm repair is commonly performed through two retroperitoneal incisions in the iliac

fossa. Larger incisions are necessary when simultaneous external and common iliac exposures are needed. We describe a new technique using a single incision for bilateral approach of the iliac arteries. Exposure of iliac arteries through this bilateral anterior paramedian retroperitoneal approach allows the introduction of endografts, crossover ilioiliac bypass, implantation of graft limbs for bifurcated bypass grafting, reconstruction of internal iliac arteries, and ligature of iliac arteries. (J Vasc Surg 2009;50:203-5.)”
“Everyday we choose between a variety of different food items trying to reach a decision that fits best our needs. learn more These decisions are highly dependent on the context in which the alternatives are presented (e.g. labeling). We investigate the influence of cognition on food evaluation, using an fMRI experiment in which subjects saw and bid on different foods labeled with (or without) a widely known German emblem for organically produced

food. Increased activity in the ventral striatum was found for foods labeled “organic” in comparison to conventionally labeled food. Between-subject differences in activity were related to actual everyday consumption behavior of organic food. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the leading cause of acute severe liver disease in Western countries. Treatment strategies for DILI are still not well defined. Aim: We studied the safety and outcomes of steroid/ursodesoxycholic acid (UDCA) combination therapy in DILI patients. Patients, Materials and Methods: 15 consecutive patients with severe DILI were analyzed for clinical, biochemical and histological data. Nine patients were treated with a steroid step-down therapy with reduction of the daily dose over several weeks; 6 patients received a steroid pulse therapy for 3 days. UDCA was administered for several weeks in both groups.

The thorax and abdomen regions were individually analyzed to dete

The thorax and abdomen regions were individually analyzed to determine the thorax-to-abdomen breathing ratios. There were 11 image datasets that had been scanned only through the thorax. For these cases, the abdomen breathing component was equal to 1.11-Sigma eta(i) where the sum was taken throughout ALK inhibitor cancer the thorax.\n\nResults: The average Sigma eta(i) for thorax and abdomen image datasets was found to be 1.20 +/- 0.17, close to the expected value of 1.11. The thorax-to-abdomen breathing ratio was 0.32

+/- 0.24. The average Sigma eta(i) was 0.26 +/- 0.14 in the thorax and 0.93 +/- 0.22 in the abdomen. In the scan datasets that encompassed only the thorax, the average Sigma eta(i) was 0.21 +/- 0.11.\n\nConclusions: A method to quantify the relationship between abdomen and thoracic breathing was developed and characterized. (C) 2013 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.”
“Purpose of review\n\nHuman observational studies have shown that, in interaction with life stress, the short or S-allele of the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) is associated with an enhanced risk for depression. However,

this gene-by-environment interaction (G x E) has recently been questioned by two meta-analyses. We aim to provide an overview and appraisal of SNS-032 supplier recent developments and controversies.\n\nRecent findings\n\nThe statistical approach of the meta-analyses R788 aimed at a very strict replication of the initial finding and, accordingly, included only a minority of all available studies. Furthermore, the negative results of the meta-analyses appear to be predominantly driven by a few large studies that used retrospective, self-report measures of life stress. In contrast, among 19 studies using interview-based or more objective measures of stress, there were 13 replications, five part-replications and only one nonreplication. Finally, a broader approach based on evidence from different research fields and methodologies supports a 5-HTTLPR by stress interaction.\n\nSummary\n\nWhereas there is no doubt that the meta-analyses are methodologically sound, it

appears that this technique is only in part suitable for appraising all of the available evidence. Furthermore, convergent evidence is accumulating from different research fields that 5-HTTLPR is indeed closely associated with different biological pathways associated with stress regulation and depression.”
“Objective: Pain is a common symptom that affects quality of life in patients with post-polio syndrome. An increase in cytokine in the cerebrospinal fluid suggests that inflammation is pathophysiologically important in post-polio syndrome. Intravenous immunoglobulin might therefore be a therapeutic option. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of intravenous immunoglobulin treatment on pain in post-polio syndrome.\n\nMethods: An uncontrolled clinical study.

68, 95%CI=0 32-1 48, p=0 33; stages OR=0 69, 95%CI=0 41-1 15, p=0

68, 95%CI=0.32-1.48, p=0.33; stages OR=0.69, 95%CI=0.41-1.15, p=0.15). Conclusions: TNF-alpha promoter

polymorphisms might not be associated with PBC risk. However, studies with larger population of varying ethnicity and stratified by clinical and laboratory characteristics are needed to validate out findings.”
“Aspergillus terreus is an emerging pathogen that mostly affects immunocompromised patients, causing infections that are often difficult to manage therapeutically. Current diagnostic strategies are limited to the detection AZD7762 manufacturer of fungal growth using radiological methods or biopsy, which often does not enable species-specific identification. There is thus a critical need for diagnostic techniques to enable early and specific identification of the causative agent. In this study, we describe monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) developed to a previously described recombinant form of the haemolysin terrelysin. Sixteen hybridomas of various IgG isotypes were generated to the recombinant protein, of which seven demonstrated reactivity to the native protein in hyphal extracts. Cross-reactivity analysis using hyphal extracts from 29 fungal species, including 12 Aspergillus species and five strains of A. terreus, showed that three mAbs (13G10, 15B5 and 10G4) were A. terreus-specific. Epitope analysis

demonstrated mAbs 13G10 and 10G4 recognize the same epitope, PSNEFE, while mAb 15B5 recognizes the epitope LYEGQFHS. Time-course studies showed that terrelysin expression C59 ic50 was highest during early hyphal growth

and dramatically decreased after this website mycelial expansion. Immunolocalization studies demonstrated that terrelysin was not only localized within the cytoplasm of hyphae but appeared to be more abundant at the hyphal tip. These findings were confirmed in cultures grown at room temperature as well as at 37 degrees C. Additionally, terrelysin was detected in the supernatant of A. terreus cultures. These observations suggest that terrelysin may be a candidate biomarker for A. terreus infection.”
“BACKGROUND: Proficiency in placing infraclavicular subclavian venous catheters can be achieved through practice and repetition. But few data, specifically document insertion technical errors, which mentors could teach novice operators to avoid.\n\nSTUDY DESIGN: Surgical, medical, and anesthesia textbooks and procedural handbooks were reviewed. Subclavian catheter placement technical errors described were identified and consolidated. Video captures from 86 consecutive patients receiving subclavian central venous catheterizations at an urban trauma center were evaluated. In each video segment, the number of attempts at insertion, the number of failures at insertion, and the technical error observed during failed attempts were recorded and tabulated.\n\nRESULTS: Of the 86 subclavian line placements attempted, 77 were successful (89.

Imbalance in the composition and altered activity of the microbio

Imbalance in the composition and altered activity of the microbiota are associated with many diseases. Consequently, there is growing interest in applying FMT to non-C difficile indications. However, this may succeed only if microbiota therapeutics are developed systematically, based on mechanistic understanding, and applying up-to-date principles of microbial ecology. We discuss 2 pathways in the development of this new therapeutic class: whole microbial communities separated from donor stool and an assembly of specific Crenolanib chemical structure fecal microorganisms grown in vitro.”
“The fungal hydrophobins are small proteins that are able to spontaneously self-assemble into amphipathic monolayers at hydrophobic:

hydrophilic interfaces. These protein monolayers can reverse the wettability of a surface, making them suitable for increasing the biocompatibility of many hydrophobic materials. The self-assembling properties and amphipathic nature of hydrophobins make them attractive learn more candidates for biotechnological applications. Recently, there have been significant advances in the understanding of the structure and assembly of these remarkable proteins. This opens up the way for engineering these proteins to encompass novel functions and for the use of hydrophobins in modification of nanomaterials. This review highlights

the important structural aspects of the hydrophobins and the mechanisms by which they assemble and describes recent exciting developments in the use of hydrophobins for cell attachment, drug delivery, and protein purification. (C) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“A highly selective, sensitive, and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of a novel type of dopamine receptor antagonist

LE300 and its N-methyl 3-deazaneplanocin A inhibitor metabolite in mouse sera. LE300, its N-methyl metabolite, and verapamil (an internal standard) were detected using excitation and emission wavelengths of 275 and 340 nm, respectively. HPLC analysis using a deproteinization procedure was performed by injecting an aliquot of the supernatant into the chromatographic system. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a reversed-phase Spherisorb Cyano (CN) column with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile:50 mM phosphate buffer pH 3.5 (70:30, v/v) pumped at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). Regression analyses showed excellent linearity (r = 0.999) for concentrations of LE300 ranging from 4 to 500 ng mL(-1) and for concentrations of its N-methyl metabolite of 6-600 ng mL(-1). The HPLC-FLD method had limits of detection of 1.6 ng mL(-1) for LE300 and 2.4 ng mL(-1) for its N-methyl metabolite in mouse sera. The precision results, expressed as the intraday and interday relative standard deviation (RSD) values, ranged from 0.65 to 2.85 % (repeatability) and from 0.37 to 2.

We applied newly developed methods for modelling the distribution

We applied newly developed methods for modelling the distribution of invasive species to the invasive shrub Rhododendron ponticum-a foliar reservoir host for the Phytophthora oomycete plant pathogens, P. ramorum and P. kernoviae, that threaten woodland and heathland habitat in Scotland. We compiled eleven datasets of biological records for R. ponticum (1,691 points, 8,455 polygons) and developed Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) models incorporating landscape, soil and climate predictors. Our models produced accurate predictions of current suitable R. ponticum habitat (training AUC = 0.838; test AUC = 0.838) that corresponded Compound C mouse well with population performance

(areal cover). Continuous broad-leaved woodland cover, low elevation (< 400 m a.s.l.) and intermediate levels of soil moisture (or Enhanced Vegetation Index) favoured presence of R. ponticum. The high coincidence of suitable habitat with both core native woodlands (54 % of woodlands) and plantations of another sporulation host, Larix kaempferi (64 % of plantations) suggests a high potential see more for spread of Phytophthora infection to woodland mediated by R. ponticum. Incorporating non-equilibrium modelling methods did not improve habitat suitability predictions of this invasive host, possibly because, as a long-standing invader, R. ponticum has filled more of its available habitat at this national scale than previously suspected.”

physiological and behavioural responses of early life phases in

American Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus) towards sand and gravel substrate were examined during the first 15 days post-hatch. The free embryos were reared in circular tanks with approximately 30% of the bottom surface covered with either coarse gravel or sand. A group reared in tanks without additional substrate served as a control. Diurnal differences in activity patterns were observed. Substrate use by the free embryos revealed significant differences during the first 5 days post-hatch, being higher in the gravel group than in the sand group. The results in size of the free embryos revealed significant differences, with the gravel group showing the lowest total length and wet mass until the onset of exogenous feeding – although dry mass and energy contents were highest. In contrast, length and wet mass during yolk sac absorption were highest in the control MLN2238 group, but energy content at onset of exogenous feeding was 14% lower compared to the gravel group. The onset of exogenous feeding in the gravel group had a 1-day delay when compared to the two other treatments. On day 14, following the successful establishment of exogenous feed uptake, the specific growth rate in wet mass (SGR) for the gravel group (0.250 +/- 0.088) exceeded those of the two other treatments (sand 0.132 +/- 0.038 and control 0.095 +/- 0.020) significantly (Dunn’s n = 10 and n = 5, P < 0.05), indicating a compensational growth pattern.

In ants and other social insects, social recognition relies on mu

In ants and other social insects, social recognition relies on multicomponent chemical signatures, composed primarily of long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons. These signatures are colony specific and allow discrimination between nestmates and non-nestmates. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying detection, perception and information processing

of chemical signatures are poorly understood. It has been suggested that associative learning might play a role in nestmate recognition. We investigated whether Camponotus aethiops ants can associate a complete cuticular hydrocarbon profile, consisting of about 40 compounds, with a food reward and whether the new association, developed in an see more appetitive context, affects aggression against non-nestmates carrying the hydrocarbon profile associated CHIR-99021 research buy with food. Individual ant workers were able to associate the non-nestmate chemical profile with food. However, conditioned

ants were still aggressive when encountering a non-nestmate carrying the odour profile used as training odour in our experiments. This suggests that ants, like some, but not all other insects, show interactions between different modalities (i.e. olfactory and visual), and can treat complex chemical cues differently, according to the context in which they are perceived. This plasticity ensures that learning in an appetitive context does not interfere with the crucial task of colony defence. (C) 2010 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”

of the Ca2+ store by ryanodine receptor (RyR) agonists induces store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). 4-Chloro-3-ethylphenol (4-CEP) and 4-chloro-m-cresol (4-CmC) are RyR agonists commonly used as research tools and diagnostic reagents for malignant hyperthermia. Here, we investigated the effects of 4-CEP and its analogues on SOCE. Experimental ApproachSOCE and ORAI1-3 Adriamycin currents were recorded by Ca2+ imaging and whole-cell patch recordings in rat L6 myoblasts and in HEK293 cells overexpressing STIM1/ORAI1-3. Key Results4-CEP induced a significant release of Ca2+ in rat L6 myoblasts, but inhibited SOCE. The inhibitory effect was concentration-dependent and more potent than its analogues 4-CmC and 4-chlorophenol (4-ClP). In the HEK293 T-REx cells overexpressing STIM1/ORAI1-3, 4-CEP inhibited the ORAI1, ORAI2 and ORAI3 currents evoked by thapsigargin. The 2-APB-induced ORAI3 current was also blocked by 4-CEP. This inhibitory effect was reversible and independent of the Ca2+ release. The two analogues, 4-CmC and 4-ClP, also inhibited the ORAI1-3 channels. Excised patch and intracellular application of 4-CEP demonstrated that the action site was located extracellularly.

29) Previous antimicrobial therapy was an important risk factor

29). Previous antimicrobial therapy was an important risk factor for the isolation of MRS at both sites.”
“Novel biodegradable poly(carbonate-ether)s (PCEs) with lower critical solution temperature (LCST) SBC-115076 chemical structure at body temperature were synthesized by copolymerization of CO2 and ethylene oxide (EO) under double metal cyanide (DMC) catalyst. The PCEs showed carbonate unit (CU) content of 1.042.4 mol % and molecular weight of 2.7247 kg/mol, which exhibited reversible thermoresponsive feature in deionized water with LCST in a broad window from 21.5 to 84.1 degrees C. The LCST was highly sensitive

to the CU content and the molecular weight of PCEs, and it showed a linear relation with CU content for PCEs with similar molecular weight. In particular, aqueous solution of PCE with a 26.0 VX-680 clinical trial mol % of CU showed an LCST around 36.1 degrees

C, which was very close to the body temperature. Interestingly, it was found that the phase transition behavior changed with PCE concentration. For PCE with Mn of 2.7 kg/mol and CU content of 30.0 mol %, the LCST increased from 21.5 to 36.7 degrees C when the PCE concentration changed from 10 to 1 g/L. Dynamic light scattering indicated that the phase transition was possibly due to a coil-to-globule transition. The thermoresponsive biodegradable PCE with LCST at body temperature is promising for biomedical applications, especially for in vivo applications. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part Akt inhibitor A: Polym Chem, 2013″
“Background: Retinopathy of prematurity(ROP) is the most common serious ophthalmic disease in preterm infants. Human milk may provide a protective effect for ROP; however, beneficial effects of human milk preclude

randomized trials. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective analysis comparing early postnatal nutrition with ROP development.\n\nObjective: Evaluate relationship between early postnatal nutriture and ROP surgery.\n\nDesign/methods: Nutrition data was collected for inborn AGA infants, BW 700-1000g. ROP surgery was the primary outcome variable. A single pediatric ophthalmologist supervised examinations. All infants received triweekly IM vitamin A as chronic lung disease prophylaxis (Tyson: NEJM, 1999).\n\nResults: BW and gestational age were 867 +/- 85 g and 26.3 +/- 1.2 weeks (n=77, mean +/- 1SD). ROP surgery infants(n = 11) received more parenteral nutrition, 1648 mL, and less human milk, 13.8 mL/kg-day, and vitamin E, 1.4 mg/kg-day, during the second postnatal week. Human milk was a negative predictor for ROP surgery, odds ratio = 0.94. Both groups met vitamin A recommendations; however, 74% was administered via IM injections. Neither group met vitamin E recommendations.\n\nConclusions: Human milk feeding, parenteral nutrition volume and vitamin E intake were predictors for ROP surgery. IM vitamin A injections provided the majority of vitamin A; vitamin E administration was insufficient.