Electrophoresis 1997, 18:369–381.PubMedCrossRef Authors’ contributions LMR carried out the CMAT analyses and determined the growth and sampling times for the lysogen cultures. MV-G carried out the 2D-PAGE analyses, developed and performed the qRT-PCR assays and produced the figures. MH prepared all DNA samples for CMAT library production. JDH and MH designed CMAT
and were involved in technical critiquing of these experiments. AJM and HEA designed the study and were involved in the interpretation of all data. All authors were involved in the writing and editing of this manuscript including the reading and approval of the final version.”
“Background Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus, which is characterized by the development of yellow shoots and stunted Acalabrutinib datasheet growth of infected trees combined with a decline in quantity and quality of fruit production . HLB-affected fruit are abnormally-pigmented, developmentally flawed, and have a bitter taste- making them unusable for juice production or as table fruit [2, 3]. Typically, trees with HLB succumb to the effects of infection and die within a few years
after showing the RXDX-106 manufacturer first signs of the disease . HLB is associated with three ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’ species worldwide: ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’, ‘Ca. L. africanus’ and ‘Ca. L. americanus’; the nomenclature is based on the presumptive origin of each bacterium in Asia, Epothilone B (EPO906, Patupilone) Africa and South America, respectively . HLB has been known in Asian countries since the 1870s [1, 5, 6] and found to be associated with the presence of a fastidious α-proteobacterium named ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’. In the western hemisphere, it was reported in São Paulo, Brazil in 2004 and in Florida, USA
in 2005- two of the largest citrus growing regions in the world . Although ‘Ca. L. americanus’ initially constituted a major proportion of the total bacterial population in Brazil, this ratio has changed since 2004, and ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ is now the most prevalent citrus-destroying species . Both ‘Ca. L. americanus’ and ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ are transmitted by a psyllid vector, Diaphorina citri (also known as the Asian citrus psyllid, or ACP) in Asia, North America, and South America [7, 8]. The HLB-associated Liberibacters can also be transmitted by grafting propagative material from infected plants onto nursery stock. The continued economic losses associated with HLB are a serious threat to the U.S. citrus industry . HLB affects all citrus cultivars  and to date there are no known HLB-resistant citrus cultivars. The genetic structure within a given pathogen population can be a valuable resource for determining the source or origin of the pathogen and risk management of the disease.