Aspirin, a nonselective COX inhibitor, as well as ascorbic acid, has been
purported to protect cerebral tissue. We investigated the effects of subchronic aspirin and ascorbic acid usage on spatial learning, oxidative stress and expressions of NR2A, NR2B, nAChR alpha 7, alpha 4 and beta 2. Forty male rats (16-18 months) were divided into 4 groups, namely, control, aspirin-treated, ascorbic acid-treated, aspirin + ascorbic acid-treated groups. Following 10-weeks administration period, rats were trained and tested in the Morris water maze. 8-Hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and malondialdehyde were evaluated by ELISA and HPLC, respectively. Receptor expressions were assessed by western blotting of hippocampi. Spatial learning performance improved partially in the aspirin group, but significant improvement was seen Apoptosis inhibitor in the aspirin GSK J4 cost + ascorbic acid group (p smaller than 0.05). While 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and malondialdehyde levels were significantly decreased, NR2B and nAChRa7 expressions were significantly increased in the aspirin + ascorbic acid group as compared to the control group (p smaller than 0.05). Subchronic treatment with aspirin + ascorbic acid in aged rats was shown to enhance cognitive performance and increase the expressions of several receptors related to learning and memory process. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Objective Endothelin (ET)-1 plays a role
in vascular reactive oxygen species production and inflammation. ET-1 has been implicated in human atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development. ET-1 overexpression exacerbates high-fat diet-induced atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-/- (Apoe(-/-)) mice. ET-1-induced reactive oxygen species and inflammation may contribute to atherosclerosis progression and AAA development.\n\nApproach and Results Eight-week-old male wild-type mice, transgenic AZD6738 supplier mice overexpressing ET-1 selectively in endothelium (eET-1), Apoe(-/-) mice, and eET-1/Apoe(-/-) mice were fed high-fat diet for 8 weeks. eET-1/Apoe(-/-)
had a 45% reduction in plasma high-density lipoprotein (P<0.05) and presented 2-fold more aortic atherosclerotic lesions compared with Apoe(-/-) (P<0.01). AAAs were detected only in eET-1/Apoe(-/-) (8/21; P<0.05). Reactive oxygen species production was increased 2-fold in perivascular fat, media, or atherosclerotic lesions in the ascending aorta and AAAs of eET-1/Apoe(-/-) compared with Apoe(-/-) (P<0.05). Monocyte/macrophage infiltration was enhanced 2.5-fold in perivascular fat of ascending aorta and AAAs in eET-1/Apoe(-/-) compared with Apoe(-/-) (P<0.05). CD4(+) T cells were detected almost exclusively in perivascular fat (3/6) and atherosclerotic lesions (5/6) in ascending aorta of eET-1/Apoe(-/-) (P<0.05). The percentage of spleen proinflammatory Ly-6C(hi) monocytes was enhanced 26% by ET-1 overexpression in Apoe(-/-) (P<0.05), and matrix metalloproteinase-2 was increased 2-fold in plaques of eET-1/Apoe(-/-) (P<0.