Finally, peer pressure can be more effective than prescription, a

Finally, peer pressure can be more effective than prescription, and it will be easier to convince landowners of conserving their land when they witness others in their communities do so (10:+2). Factor 3 Factor summary: Factor 3 explains 7 % of the total variance and has an Eigen value of 1.98. Five respondents loaded on the factor, of which three were male and two were female. Three respondents were from the Natura 2000 site and two from the landscape park.

No respondent from the national park loaded on this factor. All five respondents were landowners and farmers. Interpretation of factor 3: The Uncertain—Private land can conserve biodiversity but can threaten landowners’ rights in the process Private land conservation, in its current state, doesn’t have any solution that will satisfy the interest of all stakeholders (6:+3). On the one hand, it is important to conserve private land, selleck chemicals especially if it holds important biological resources (1:+2). In such cases, it is not a choice between

nature and human needs, and conservation shouldn’t have to depend only on voluntary actions and a landowner’s managing capabilities (27:−1; 17:−1: 5:−2). On the ARS-1620 other hand, conservation on private land threatens to infringe on a landowner’s property rights and change the primary functioning of his land significantly (15:+4; 14:−4). It does not allow for the landowner to continue the use of his land as he used to and even if it did, conservation measures do not benefit or complement his land use in any way (13:−4; 25:−3). Moreover, the restrictions of being part of a protected area will often PLEK2 be in perpetuity and therefore a burden inherited by next generation of

landowners (4:+1). Along with lack of compensatory schemes, the top-down approach of site selection and designating private land as part of protected areas, has also made it conflict ridden (3:0; 35:+3). Even as a mixed model of public and private protected areas, it will not work efficiently as it will impose the same restrictions on the private property as that of the public protected area it is a part of (19:−3; 26:−1). Thus, private land conservation comes across as a tool that takes away a landowner’s authority over his own land (16:+1). Considering the current state of management structure and process in Poland, it is almost impossible to have effective private land conservation (8:+3). Decision making power should not lie in the hands of the managing authorities only and there is a need for stronger collaboration among local stakeholder Osimertinib chemical structure groups and the managing authorities. (11:−2; 21:+1). There might be new income opportunities from private protected areas that can mitigate some of the challenges, but landowners need to be made aware of those potential opportunities (18:+1; 29:+1).

In agreement with previous results [22], Table 1

In agreement with previous results [22], Table 1 Emricasan supplier shows the maintenance of high polyP level in late stationary phase cells grown in MT + P. Differences in tolerance due to media Pi concentration were also observed using LB and LB + P, defined as LB containing 40 mM phosphate buffer pH 7 [23], (data not shown). Figure 1 Copper tolerance in stationary phase cells. Copper tolerance of 48 h MT or MT + P growing cells of the indicated strains (panels

A-F) was determined after one-hour exposure with different copper concentrations. Serial dilutions of cells incubated without copper (control) or treated cultures were spotted in LB-agar plates. The last spot of each strip was loaded with 1/100000 dilution of eFT508 cell line original cultures. Data are representative of at least four independent experiments. Table 1 PolyP levels during growth in different Pi concentrations media   polyP (AU)*   MC4100 ppk − ppx − ppx − pitA − pitB − pitA − pitB   MT MT + P MT MT + P MT MT + P MT MT + P MT MT + P MT MT + P 6 h 123650 ± 10540a 152951 ± 8120a 45541 ± 5563a 38254 ± 4521a 220152 ± 15120a 252651 ± 11120a 80524 ± 9452a 91523 ± 8563a 82536 ± 8652a 95623 ± 9563a 81524 ± 9452a 90523 ± 5563a 24 h 54000 ± 9500b 125420 ± 10245a 42564 ± 4521a

40251 ± 6523a 200536 ± 16245a 241536 ± 12155a 32564 ± 4152b 93056 ± 6652a 24563 ± 3254b 89654 ± 10254a 28564 ± 4152b 88056 ± 8652a 48 h 44652 ± 4556b 138456 ± 8486a 38563 ± 7521a 41251 ± 5125a 208456 ± 12486a 238456 ± 10286a 22563 ± 5634b 89862 ± 4128a 32564 ± 4635b 92365 ± 8365a 20563 ± 5634b 91862 ± 4658a *Fluorescence 550 nm. For each strain, different SC79 nmr letters indicate significant differences among conditions according to Tukey’s test with a p-value of 0.05. As a first step to elucidate the differential copper tolerance in cells grown in MT or MT + P for 48 h, assays using ppk − ppx − (unable to synthesize/degrade polyP [24, 25]) and ppx − (unable Selleckchem Fludarabine to degrade polyP) cells were performed in these conditions. Both mutants were highly sensitive to metal even in MT + P

(Figure 1B and C). Note that, polyP levels in ppx − strain were always high, independently of the growth phase and the media used, while the ppkppx mutant exhibits greatly reduced synthesis of polyP, evidenced by low values of fluorescence emission (Table 1). The implication of Pit system components in copper tolerance was also analyzed using E. coli strains lacking one or both transporter encoding genes (Figure 1D-F). pitA and pitB single mutants were unable to tolerate 0.5 mM Cu2+ in both media. This sensitivity was more pronounced in the pitApitB double mutant. It is worth noting that polyP levels in Pit system mutants depended on media Pi concentration, similarly to WT (Table 1). Above results using different strains and culture media support the idea that stationary phase copper tolerance is mediated by a mechanism which involves both polyP metabolism and Pit system.

Progr Mater Sci 2009, 54:1–67 CrossRef

12 Franke M, Kopl

Progr Mater Sci 2009, 54:1–67.CrossRef

12. Franke M, Koplin T, Simon U: Metal and metal oxide nanoparticles in chemiresistors: does the nanoscale matter? Small 2006, 2:36–50.CrossRef 13. Wang B, Zhu LF, Yang JH, Xu NS, Yang GW: Fabrication of a SnO 2 nanowire see more gas sensors and sensor performance for hydrogen. J Phys Chem C 2008, 112:6643–6647.CrossRef 14. Kwoka M, Waczynska N, Kościelniak P, Sitarz M, Szuber J: XPS and TDS comparative studies of L-CVD SnO 2 ultra thin films. Thin Solid Films 2011, 520:913.CrossRef 15. Kwoka M, Ottaviano L, Passacantando M, Santucci S, Czempik G, Szuber J: XPS study of the surface chemistry of L-CVD SnO 2 thin films after oxidation. Thin Solid Films 2005, 490:36–42.CrossRef 16. Wagner CD, Riggs WM, Davis LE, Moulder JF, Milenberger

GE: Handbook of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Eden Prairie: Perkin-Elmer; 1979. 17. Kar A, Stroscio MA, Dutta M, Kumari J, Meyyappan M: Observation of ultraviolet emission and effect of surface states on the luminescence from tin oxide nanowires. Appl Phys Lett 2009, 94:101905–1.CrossRef 18. Kar A, Yang J, Dutta M, Stroscio MA, Kumari J, Meyyappan M: Rapid thermal annealing effects on tin oxide nanowires prepared by vapor–liquid-solid technique. Nanotechnology 2009, 20:065704. 1–4CrossRef 19. Kar A, Stroscio MA, Dutta M, Kumari J, Meyyappan M: Growth and properties of tin oxide nanowires and the effect of annealing conditions. Semicond Sci Technol 2010, 25:024012. 1–9CrossRef 20. Vomiero A, Ferroni

selleck chemicals llc M, Comini E, Faglia G, Sberveglieri G: Preparation of radial and longitudinal nanosized heterostructures of In 2 O 3 and SnO 2 . Nano Lett 2007, 7:3553–3558.CrossRef 21. Comini E, Faglia G, Ferroni M, Ponzoni A, Vomiero A, Sberveglieri G: Protein kinase N1 Metal oxide nanowires: preparation and application in gas sensing. J Mol Catal A Chem 2009, 305:170–177.CrossRef 22. Sberveglieri G, Concina I, Comini E, Falasconi M, Ferroni M, Sberveglieri V: Synthesis and integration of tin oxide nanowires into an electronic nose. Vacuum 2012, 86:532–535.CrossRef 23. Sberveglieri G, Baratto C, Comini E, Faglia G, Ferroni M, Ponzoni A, Vomiero A: Synthesis and characterization of semiconducting nanowires for gas sensing. Sensors Actuators B 2007, 121:208–213.CrossRef 24. Comini E: Metal oxide nano-crystals for gas sensing. Anal Chim Acta 2006, 568:28–40.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions MS was involved in the preparation of samples, carrying out the SEM study, and engaged in XPS and TDS experiments and data analysis. MK carried out the XPS and TDS experiments, analyzed the experimental data, and drafted the manuscript. EC and JS conceived of the study. DZ was involved in the preparation of samples. All authors read and approved the final FHPI price version of the manuscript.

5 to 1 1 k Ω/sq It is also worthy to mention that the sheet resi

5 to 1.1 k Ω/sq. It is also worthy to mention that the sheet resistance of the compressed CNTF seems to be the same as that of the as-sprayed CNTF at the room temperature compression, which implies that the heat plays an important role in the reduction of sheet resistance under the thermal compression. Figure 5 shows the sheet resistance against the compression check details duration for the 230-nm-thick CNTFs under the compression force of 100 N. The sheet resistance decreases with the increasing of the compression duration. For the compression duration of 60 min, the sheet

resistance of CNTF at the compression temperature of 400°C selleckchem is lower than that of the one compressed at 200°C. The initial sheet resistance for the 230-nm-thick MS 275 CNTFs is 17 k Ω/sq, and the sheet resistances with the compression duration of 60 min are about 3.3 k Ω/sq for the CNTF compressed at 200°C and 0.9 k Ω/sq for the one compressed at 400°C.

Although the decreasing of sheet resistance seems to be saturated after 50 min, it is suspected that the sheet resistance of CNTF can be further decreased if the compression temperature increases. A possible mechanism for the enhanced conductivity of CNTF after the thermal compression is therefore proposed. At first, there are some defects created on the surface of CNTs after the acid treatment, and the CNTs in the as-sprayed CNTF are distributed arbitrarily with the wire shape, which these CNTs contact each other at the joints without any chemical bonds, as illustrated in Figure 6a. As we know, the carriers in the length-limited CNTs need to cross a lot of junctions from one CNT to another, and then the CNTF generally attained an unsatisfied conductivity mainly attributed to the existences of these junctions at the joints of CNTs. After the thermal compression, for instance, under the compression force of 100 N at 200°C, a high pressure, close to 1 GPa at the joints of CNTs in our case, acts on CNTs, and the CNTs are squeezed and deformed, as shown in Figure 6b. With the assistance of heat, the carbon

atoms around the defect sites start to bond with the neighbor carbon atoms that require a lower reaction energy. While the compression force, duration, and temperature are quite enough for the reaction, the linking of CNTs proceeds entirely, and then the CNTs are twined into a continuous film, as depicted in Figure 6c. Therefore, the carrier transports with a Thiamine-diphosphate kinase high conductivity after thermal compression are obtained due to the lower junction barrier at the joints of linked CNTs. Figure 3 The Raman spectra of the as-sprayed CNTF and thermally compressed ones, accordingly. Figure 4 Sheet resistance versus the compression temperature for the 110-nm-thick and 230-nm-thick CNTFs. Sheet resistance under the compression force of 100 N for 50 min. Figure 5 Sheet resistance against the compression duration for the 230-nm-thick CNTFs. Sheet resistance under the compression force of 100 N at 200°C and 400°C, accordingly.

For instance, Brand B is comprised of the family


For instance, Brand B is comprised of the family

Incertae Sedis XII (96%) within the order Bacillales (100%), which is not surprising since this brand is almost entirely dominated by a single classification (Exiguobacterium) at the genus level that falls within the family Incertae Sedis XII. Similar to Brand B, Brand C is also dominated by Incertae Sedix XII (45%) and Bacillales (59%), as well as Exiguobacterium (46%) at the genus level. Brand A is dominated by Clostridiaceae (67%) at the 3-MA research buy family level, which falls within the order Clostridiales noted in Brand A at 67% abundance. Clostridiaceae dominates Brand A at the genus level with 68%, which falls within the Clostridiaceae family. The diversity and uniqueness of Brand A cheese is partially explained by a replicate within Brand A, replicate Brand A_rep1, that

appears to have more diversity at the class level than the other 3 replicates, with the presence of Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Betaproteobacteria, of which only Alphaproteobacteria is shared by Brand A_rep3 in very low abundance. This diversity is evident at the genus level as well (Figures 1 and 2), with Brand A_rep1 containing 4 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) not found in any other Brand A replicates, nor in any samples from the other cheese brands, using a 95% identity threshold for clustering sequences. In addition, Brand A_rep1 contains 13 OTUs total that occurred at a ≥ 1% abundance in the sample at the genus level, while the other Brand A replicates as well as all replicates from the other cheese brands contain no more than 7 OTUs per sample. Figure 1 Genus selleckchem level abundance profiles using 16S rRNA sequence classifications. Taxa represented occurred at ≥ 1% abundance in that sample. Figure

2 Hierarchical clustering of samples using Genus level distributions. Displayed Anacetrapib values are log transformed relative abundances within each sample, (e.g. 0.10 ~ −1; 0.01 ~ −2). Visualized using skiff in CloVR. Diversity analysis using operational taxonomic units Rarefaction curves of all enriched cheese samples (Figure 3), also support the observation that Brand A samples supported the greatest diversity among the three cheeses. The greater diversity of Brand A cheese sample Brand A_rep1 is displayed, rising dramatically above all other samples. This is confirmed with the UniFrac selleck products metric, which shows the replicate samples of each brand distinctly clustered together by brand except for Brand A_rep1. Brand C replicates cluster together rather tightly, more so than the Brand B replicates. Figure 3 Rarefaction curves of OTUs in all 4 replicates of each cheese brand. CloVR analysis Using the automated 16S rRNA pipelines provided by the CloVR software package ( http://​clovr.​org). Replicates within each cheese type clustered as expected at the genus level except for the Brand A_ rep1 (Figure 2).


Mol Selleckchem CHIR 99021 Microbiol 2005, 57:196–211.CrossRefPubMed 13. Morgan E, Campbell JD, Rowe SC, Bispham J, Stevens MP, Bowen AJ, Barrow PA, Maskell DJ, Wallis TS: Identification of host-specific colonization factors of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Mol Microbiol 2004, 54:994–1010.CrossRefPubMed 14. Knodler LA, Celli J, Hardt WD, Vallance BA, Yip C, Finlay BB:Salmonella effectors within a single pathogeniCity island are differentially expressed and translocated by separate type III secretion systems. Mol Microbiol 2002, 43:1089–1103.CrossRefPubMed 15. Jones MA, Hulme SD, Barrow PA, Wigley P: The Salmonella pathogeniCity island 1 and Salmonella pathogeniCity island 2 type III secretion

systems play a major role in pathogenesis of systemic disease and gastrointestinal tract colonization of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the chicken. Avian

Pathol 2007, 36:199–203.CrossRefPubMed 16. Bohez L, Gantois I, Ducatelle R, Pasmans F, Dewulf J, Haesebrouck F, Van Immerseel F: The Salmonella PathogeniCity Island 2 regulator ssrA promotes reproductive tract but not intestinal colonization in chickens. Vet Microbiol 2008, 126:216–224.CrossRefPubMed 17. Dieye Y, Ameiss CYT387 clinical trial K, Mellata M, Curtiss R III: The Salmonella PathogeniCity Island (SPI) 1 contributes more than SPI2 to the colonization of the chicken by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. BMC Microbiol 2009, 9:3.CrossRefPubMed 18. Bohez L, Ducatelle R, Pasmans F, Botteldoorn N, Haesebrouck F, Van Immerseel F:Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis colonization of the chicken caecum requires the HilA regulatory protein. Vet Microbiol 2006, 116:202–210.CrossRefPubMed 19. Desin TS, Lam PK, Koch B, Mickael C, Berberov E, Wisner AL, Townsend HG, Potter AA, Koster W:Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis pathogeniCity island 1 is not essential for but see more facilitates rapid systemic spread in chickens. Infect Immun 2009, 77:2866–2875.CrossRefPubMed

20. Galyov EE, Wood MW, Rosqvist R, Mullan PB, Watson PR, L-NAME HCl Hedges S, Wallis TS: A secreted effector protein of Salmonella dublin is translocated into eukaryotic cells and mediates inflammation and fluid secretion in infected ileal mucosa. Mol Microbiol 1997, 25:903–912.CrossRefPubMed 21. Shea JE, Hensel M, Gleeson C, Holden DW: Identification of a virulence locus encoding a second type III secretion system in Salmonella typhimurium. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996, 93:2593–2597.CrossRefPubMed 22. Karasova D, Sebkova A, Vrbas V, Havlickova H, Sisak F, Rychlik I: Comparative analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis mutants with a vaccine potential. Vaccine 2009, 27:5265–5270.CrossRefPubMed 23. Hapfelmeier S, Stecher B, Barthel M, Kremer M, Muller AJ, Heikenwalder M, Stallmach T, Hensel M, Pfeffer K, Akira S, et al.: The Salmonella pathogeniCity island (SPI)-2 and SPI-1 type III secretion systems allow Salmonella serovar typhimurium to trigger colitis via MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent mechanisms. J Immunol 2005, 174:1675–1685.PubMed 24.

Controlled and scalable synthesis of heterostructured NWs is a cr

Controlled and scalable synthesis of heterostructured NWs is a critical prerequisite for their broad applications. Heterostructured NWs are currently synthesized

by methods such as the sol–gel method [18], hydrothermal method [13], physical/chemical vapor deposition [19], and self-assembly [20]. Our group has recently developed Selleck Anlotinib a new sol-flame method (Figure 1a), which combines solution chemistry and rapid flame annealing to decorate NWs with other materials in the form of shells or chains of NPs to form heterostructured NWs [21–23]. Compared to other existing methods, the sol-flame method has the unique and important advantages of rapid material growth rate, low cost, versatility and scalability. Previously, we investigated the effect of flame annealing Epoxomicin mw temperature on the final morphology of the heterostructured NWs and found that high temperature flame annealing leads to NP-chain formation and low temperature favors shell formation on the NWs. In this paper, we investigate the effects of solution chemical compositions on the morphology of the heterostructured NWs synthesized by the sol-flame method. We use copper (II) oxide (CuO) NWs decorated by cobalt (II, III) oxide (Co3O4) as a model system because both CuO and Co3O4 are important

materials for catalysis and electrochemical applications and hence control of their composites and nanostructures during the synthesis is critical to improve their properties [24–28]. We study the dependence of the final morphology of the decorated Co3O4 on the chemical Alanine-glyoxylate transaminase compositions of the solvent and the cobalt salt used in the cobalt precursor solution. Figure 1 Effects of solvent on the morphology of Co 3 O 4 on CuO NWs. Schematic drawing of the sol-flame method (a), for which bare CuO NWs (b) are dip-coated with a cobalt precursor containing cobalt salt

and solvent and air dried (c), followed by a rapid flame annealing process to form Co3O4-decorated CuO NW heterostructure. SEM image of Co3O4-decorated CuO NWs prepared by the sol-flame method with different air-drying conditions: 25°C for 0.4 h (d), 25°C for 22 h (e), 130°C for 1.5 h (f), and first dried at 130°C for 1.5 h, then reapplied acetic acid and dried at 25°C for 0.4 h (g). Extensive drying by increasing duration or temperature inhibits the formation of the Co3O4 NP-chain morphology. Methods Synthesis of CuO NWs CuO NWs are first synthesized by a thermal annealing method [29–32], where copper wires (wire diameter 0.0045 in.; McMaster, Atlanta, GA, USA) with a length of 1 cm are annealed at 550°C for 12 h in air in a tube furnace (Lindberg/Blue M, Waltham, MA, USA) to grow CuO NWs perpendicularly to the copper wire surface. Preparation of cobalt precursor solutions The cobalt precursor solutions with a typical concentration of 0.04 M are prepared by mixing cobalt acetate tetrahydrate (Co(CH3COO)2·4H2O, 99%, Sigma-Aldrich selleck chemicals Chemicals, St.

We have used two different kinds of commercial GNRs in order to c

We have used two different kinds of commercial GNRs in order to compare their photothermal transduction efficiency. Both are tuned to the laser source and have their maximum surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at 808 nm (longitudinal band). The first commercial GNRs used are bare GNRs (B-GNRs) A12-10-808-100 Nanorodz (Nanopartz, Salt Lake City, UT, USA). B-GNRs are dispersed in deionized water (DI-H2O) with <0.1% ascorbic acid and <0.1% cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant

capping agent. B-GNRs have an axial diameter of 10 nm and a length of 41 nm. The other commercial GNRs used are PEGylated GNRs (PEG-GNRs) PEG-10-808-50 (Nanoseedz, China). PEG-GNRs are functionalized by thiol-terminated methoxypoly(ethylene BAY 11-7082 supplier glycol) (mPEG-PH) and are also dispersed in DI-H2O. The

dimensions of PEG-GNRs are equal to the dimensions of B-GNRs (axial diameter = 10 nm, length = 41 nm). The laser is connected to the system via eFT508 research buy a multimode optical fiber with a core diameter of 600 μm, a length of 1.5 m, and a power transmission of 90% to 99% (600-μm MM fiber, Changchun New Industries, China). The laser light from ERK inhibitor the fiber irradiates the samples through a collimation lens (78382, Newport Corporation, Irvine, CA, USA), which is in direct contact with a 4-well plate containing the samples, which have a total volume of 500 μl, and is located on a Teflon support. A temperature sensor (F100 Precision Thermometer, Automatic Systems Laboratories, Redhill, UK) is fixed vertically with the aid of a tripod stand and

a burette clamp and remains in contact with the samples during the experiments (Figure 1). Figure 1 Experimental setup: complete view (A), fiber-lens connection details (B), and sample and temperature AZD9291 sensor details (C). Thermal parameters In order to determine the parameters that characterize and describe the thermal behavior of our hyperthermia device, it is needed to develop a thermal model, which can be raised from the resolution of an equivalent electric circuit (Figure 2). Figure 2 Electrical equivalent circuit used to obtain the thermal parameters of the optical hyperthermia device. In this circuit, P is the delivered power, T(t) is the sample temperature which is time dependent, and C d (W/K) and C t (J/K) are the thermal conductance and the thermal capacitance of our experimental enclosure, respectively. Solving the circuit, we can formulate the equation that describes the power distribution, obtaining that the delivered power (P) is equal to the sum of the stored power in the capacitor (P s) and the dissipated power in the resistor (P d): (1) In this equation, T ref – m is the reference temperature (the subscript m refers to the thermal model), that is to say, the initial temperature of our sample before the laser irradiation that should match the environment temperature.

In combination with vitamin D substitution, calcium supplements h

In combination with vitamin D substitution, calcium supplements have proven anti-fracture efficacy when targeted to persons at risk of calcium and/or vitamin D insufficiency, including elderly or institutionalized individuals, osteoporosis patients on antiresorptive or anabolic medication and persons receiving glucocorticoids [4–8]. Benefits are most apparent when a daily dose of 1,000–1,200 mg calcium is complemented with 800 IU vitamin D [6, 8]. This section reviews the evidence for the positive and negative non-skeletal effects of calcium [9]. Calcium as potentially protective against cardiovascular

events Observational research has suggested an inverse relationship between calcium intake and vascular diseases. In the Iowa Women’s Health Study in 34,486 postmenopausal women aged 55 to 69 years, Bostick and colleagues found that the highest quartile of total calcium selleckchem intake (>1,425 mg/day), when compared to the lowest quartile (<696 calcium/day), was associated with a 33% reduction in ischaemic heart disease mortality (risk ratio (RR) 0.67, 95% confidence interval

(CI) 0.47 to 0.94). According to the analysis, this risk reduction was dependent of the high total intake of calcium and could be attained by diet, supplements or both [10]. Similarly, Knox found a strong negative correlation between dietary calcium intake and mortality ratios for ischemic heart ARS-1620 supplier disease [11]. In the Nurses’ Health Study cohort of 85,764 women aged 39 Etofibrate to 59 years followed for 14 years, women in the highest quintile of total calcium intake (BAY 1895344 concentration median calcium 1,145 mg/day) had a lower risk of stroke (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.50–0.95) than those in the lowest quintile (median calcium 395 mg/day) [12]. To explain this observed protection against vascular diseases, potential beneficial effects of calcium on a number of vascular risk factors have been postulated. In particular, reductions in blood pressure, serum lipid concentration and body

weight might be involved, although the data, to some extent, remain inconsistent [9]. An inverse relationship between calcium and blood pressure has been observed in several studies. In a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials, both dietary calcium intake and calcium supplements were associated with reduced blood pressure, with a trend towards larger effects with dietary intake. However, the effect size was relatively small, with a mean reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure of −1.44 mmHg (95% CI −2.20 to −0.68) and −0.84 mmHg (95% CI −1.44 to −0.24), respectively [13]. In line with these findings, a recent trial showed significantly lower rates of hypertension amongst women aged over 45 years with a dietary calcium intake of at least 679 mg/day.

​htm Accessed 5 Dec 2012 4 Aubeny E, Buhler M, Colau JC, et al

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