69 Indeed, the Ras-MEK-MAPK, Rac1, and PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathways involved in JSRV-induced cell transformation are important regulators of trophoblast growth and differentiation in human and rodent placentae.69 ERVs are present in the genomes of all vertebrates2 and can be used as DNA fossils to unravel virus–host coevolution over millions of years.8 The domestic sheep constitutes a powerful model to study the biological significance of ERVs given the contemporary presence in this animal species of a pathogenic exogenous retrovirus (JSRV) and the biologically active enJSRVs. Indeed, the study of enJSRVs provided the first in vivo evidence see more of a physiological role for ERVs in conceptus
and placental development.66 Collective evidence from studies of primates, rodents, rabbits, and sheep supports the idea that independent ERVs influenced mammalian evolution and were positively selected for a convergent physiological role in placental morphogenesis. Finally, it is likely that ERVs have other biological roles in reproduction including protection of the host reproductive tract from infectious and pathogenic exogenous retroviruses as well as fetomaternal tolerance. We are grateful to the members of the Laboratory for Uterine
Biology and Pregnancy of Texas A&M University and the Laboratory of Viral Pathogenesis of the University of Glasgow Faculty of Veterinary Medicine for stimulating discussions. Work in the laboratory of the authors is supported by NIH grant HD052745, a program grant of the Wellcome Trust and by a Strategic Research Developmental Grant by the Scottish CAL101 Ixazomib molecular weight Funding Council. “
“Fibroblast heterogeneity has been recognized for decades, but the basis for multiple phenotypes among these cells has been investigated only recently. More than 15 years ago, Bucalla and his colleagues described for the first time a population of fibroblast-like cells among circulating mononuclear blood cells. Subsequently these mesenchymal cells, termed fibrocytes, have been characterized and found
to participate in normal and pathological tissue remodelling. In this review, I have attempted to present the evidence generated thus far suggesting that fibrocytes are participants in autoimmune diseases where tissues are injured and undergo remodelling. Aspects of their phenotype suggest that they are well suited to help orchestrate immune responses through mononuclear cell recruitment and their ability to produce inflammatory mediators and extracellular matrix molecules. These attributes also raise the possibility that they might be useful targets against which therapeutic agents might be aimed. Fibroblast heterogeneity has been appreciated for several decades but its biological significance and the basis for cellular diversity remain uncertain. The question of why fibroblasts from distant anatomical regions should exhibit phenotypic divergence is unanswered.