The earlier validated name for the class, Halomebacteria (Cavalie

The earlier validated name for the class, Halomebacteria (Cavalier-Smith,

2002), was rejected by the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes (Garrity et al., 2011; Oren & Labeda, 2011). The halophiles of the family Halobacteriaceae (Gibbons, 1974), the only family within the Halobacteriales, the single order within the Halobacteria, are considered the halophiles par excellence, because virtually all of them are strictly dependent on high salt concentrations for maintaining growth and cellular integrity. Although scarce CAL-101 solubility dmso reports recorded the presence of Halobacteriaceae at relatively low salinities (Rodriguez-Valera et al., 1979; Munson et al., 1997; Elshahed et al., 2004; Purdy et al., 2004), we consider this phenomenon as the result of their capacity to prevail in localized niches with increased salt concentration, or of their property to maintain viability for a defined time frame. However, the findings of Purdy et al. (2004) suggest that representatives of the Halobacteriaceae growing at relatively low salinities may be competitive in habitats with salinities at or just above that of seawater. Most species described grow optimally above this website a concentration of 150 g L−1 salt and lyse at concentrations below 100 g L−1 (Oren, 2011b). At the time of writing (November 2011), the family

encompassed 129 species, classified based on a polyphasic approach, whose names have been validly published and classified in

36 genera (Oren, 2012). Aerobic halophilic Archaea thrive in environments with salt concentrations approaching saturation, such Tyrosine-protein kinase BLK as natural brines, alkaline salt lakes, marine solar salterns, and salt rocks of millenary age. They represent the major part of the microbiota of hypersaline soda lakes such as Lake Magadi, Kenya (an extremely alkaline lake), saltern crystallizer ponds, and the Dead Sea (Oren, 2011a). Most representatives are neutrophilic, many are alkaliphilic, and a moderately acidophilic species, Halarchaeum acidiphilum, isolated from commercial solar salt does not grow above pH 6.0 (Minegishi et al., 2010). Among the groups of methanogenic Archaea within the Euryarchaeota, there are a number of halophilic species able to grow at salt concentrations close to saturation. Taxonomically, the methanogens are grouped into five orders. The majority of known halophilic species are classified within the order Methanosarcinales, family Methanosarcinaceae (Boone et al., 2001; de la Haba et al., 2011). At the time of writing, this family comprised nine genera consisting of 30 species. Moderate and extreme halophiles are found in the genera Methanohalobium, Methanohalophilus, Methanosalsum, and Methanocalculus (Ollivier et al., 1998; Boone et al., 2001), all being strict anaerobes.

Amplification products were separated on a 15% agarose gel stain

Amplification products were separated on a 1.5% agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide in 1× TAE (40 mM Tris-acetate, 1 mM EDTA, pH 8.2) buffer and photographed. Products from each amplified locus were tested to select a suitable discriminating restriction enzyme, that is,

a panel of two or five enzymes that cut frequently along each of the amplified fragments was examined to clearly identify allelic variations. Overnight restriction digestion was carried out at 37 °C in a 20 μL reaction mixture containing 4 μL of the PCR product, 2 μL of 10× incubation buffer and 10 U of each enzyme (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech., Milan, Italy). Restriction digests were subsequently analyzed by agarose electrophoresis (2% agarose gel). Lactococcus garvieae strains were typed by combined analysis of repetitive element (REP) typing using primers (GTG)5 (5′-GTGGTGGTGGTGGTG-3′) and BOXA1R (5′-CTACGGCAAGGCGACGCTGACG-3′;

Versalovic et al., 1994; De Urraza et al., 2000) and Selleckchem MDV3100 random amplification of polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD) typing with primer M13 (5′-GAGGGTGGCGGTTCT-3′; Rossetti & Giraffa, 2005). An annealing temperature of 42, 48, 38 °C for (GTG)5, BOXA1R and M13, respectively, and an amplification protocol of 35 cycles were used. The PCR products were analyzed by electrophoresis and photographed as reported earlier. The digitized image was analyzed and processed using the Gel Compar software (Applied Maths, Kortrijk, Belgium). The value for the reproducibility of the assay, evaluated by

the analysis of repeated DNA extracts of representative strains was >93%. The DNA of L. garvieae strains (10 μg) was digested by incubation Abiraterone in vivo with 30 U of PstI endonuclease (Fermentas) according to manufacturer’s instruction. A 20 μL aliquot of the digestion mixture was combined with 5 μL of loading buffer and the preparation was electrophoresed on 0.8% (w/v) agarose gel at 100 V for 2 h. DNA fragments were subsequently transferred to a nylon membrane (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) by Southern blot. Hybridization was performed at 60 °C using the 16S rRNA gene of L. garvieae DSM 20684T. The probe was amplified using the universal primers: 16SF, 5′-AGAGTTTGATCCTGGCTCAG-3′ and 16SR, 5′-CTACGGCTACCTTGTTACGA-3′. PCR cycle was 2 min at 94 °C, then five cycles of 45 s at 94 °C, 45 s at 50 °C, 1 min at 72 °C, followed by 30 cycles of 45 s at 94 °C, 45 s at 55 °C, 1 min at 72 °C, with a 7 min final extension at 72 °C. The DIG DNA Labeling and Detection kit (Roche) was used for digoxigenin labeling of the 1513 bp fragment. Prehybridization and hybridization overnight were performed in 50% (w/v) formamide at 42 °C and stringency washes in 0.1× SSC buffer at 65 °C (10× SSC is 1.5 M NaCl, 150 mM sodium citrate).

Bright fluorescence

Bright fluorescence signals were seen for all preparations used in this study. No signal was found for beads carrying only MAb 3/1 or MAb 26/1, respectively. Additionally, coated beads were tested for the presence of the housekeeping proteins Mip,

Hsp60 and OmpM using specific MAbs and isotype-specific anti-mouse FITC. These proteins are constituent parts of OMV (Helbig et al., 2006a). Soluble LPS-carrying beads were negative; on OMV beads, a weak OmpM signal was detectable. Mip and Hsp60 were negative (immunofluorescence data not shown). Using the chosen technique, it was possible to decorate the beads separately according to the strains, the growth phases and the LPS fractions. The strain-unspecific

LPS decoration of beads visualized by Oh & Swanson (1996) revealed that synthetic Selleck AZD8055 particles were not delivered to lysosomes efficiently, presumably because of their hydrophobicity. Therefore, we used beads without LPS, but coated with specific antibodies as a reference parameter for statistical evaluation in order to assess only the additional inhibition power due to LPS. The percentage of uncoated lysosomal beads found after 1 h (after 5 h) amounted to 45.5±5.1% (41.8±1.9%) in A. castellanii, 32.4±2.2% (28.5±5.9%) in human monocytes and 30.0±5.1% (27.1±4.9%) in A/J mouse macrophages. For standardization, the counted number of uncoated beads in host cells (average±SD) per experiment was calculated to be 100% (±SD). With reference to the uncoated beads, 1 h after phagocytosis, 77.7±10.4% of beads carrying Corby OMV prepared from the E-phase were colocalized with lysosomal FDx inside A. castellanii (Fig. 1a). The value for Corby TF 3/1 amounted to 75.9±12.0%. Both strains do not differ significantly from negative controls and themselves. Beads coated with LPS fraction

<300 kDa were located in smaller numbers (P<0.001) in lysosomes of A. castellanii, 26.9±3.3% of the Corby strain and 32.5±4.7% of the mutant TF 3/1. We obtained similar results for human monocytes. A/J mouse macrophages also fulfil the chosen significance level (P<0.001), but in comparison with A. castellanii and monocytes, more than twice as many of beads for are lysosomal. An attempt at explaining these differences is not possible with the study design chosen. OMV and LPS fractions <300 kDa prepared from PE-phase liquid cultures of both strains inhibited phagosome maturation sufficiently 1 h after phagocytosis. We achieved statistically significant differences (P up to <0.001) for all host cells (Fig. 1b). Certainly, the significance level was lower for OMV than for LPS fraction <300 kDa regardless of the strains and host cells, but these calculations could have been due to the study design. OMV have a diameter of 186±83 nm (Fernandez-Moreira et al., 2006).

“The LIM homeodomain transcription factor Lmx1a is a very

“The LIM homeodomain transcription factor Lmx1a is a very potent inducer of stem cells towards dopaminergic neurons. Despite several studies on the function of this gene, the exact in vivo role of Lmx1a in mesodiencephalic dopamine (mdDA) neuronal specification is still not understood. To analyse the genes functioning downstream of Lmx1a, we performed expression microarray analysis of LMX1A-overexpressing MN9D dopaminergic cells. Several interesting regulated genes were identified, based on their regulation in other previously generated expression arrays and on their expression pattern in the developing mdDA neuronal field.

Post analysis through in vivo expression analysis in Lmx1a mouse mutant (dr/dr) embryos demonstrated a clear decrease in expression of the genes Grb10 and selleck inhibitor Rgs4, in and adjacent to the rostral and dorsal mdDA neuronal field and within the Lmx1a expression domain. Interestingly, the DA

marker Vmat2 was significantly up-regulated as a consequence of increased LMX1A dose, and subsequent analysis on Lmx1a-mutant E14.5 and adult tissue revealed a significant decrease in Vmat2 expression in mdDA neurons. Taken together, microarray analysis of an LMX1A-overexpression cell system resulted in the identification of novel direct or indirect downstream targets of Lmx1a in mdDA neurons: Grb10, Rgs4 and Vmat2. “
“Muscle spindles provide information about the position and movement of our bodies. One method for investigating spindle signals is tendon PARP inhibitor vibration. Vibration of flexor tendons can produce illusions of extension, and vibration of extensor tendons can produce illusions of flexion. Here we estimate the temporal resolution and persistence of these illusions. In Experiments 1 and 2, sequences of alternating vibration of wrist flexor and extensor tendons produced position illusions that varied with alternation period. When vibrations alternated at 1 Hz or slower, perceived position at the end of the sequence depended on the last vibration. When vibrations alternated every 0.3 s, perceived

position Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) was independent of the last vibration. Experiment 2 verified and extended these results using more trials and concurrent electromyographic recording. Although tendon vibrations sometimes induce reflexive muscle activity, we found no evidence that such activity contributed to these effects. Experiment 3 investigated how long position sense is retained when not updated by current information from spindles. Our first experiments suggested that vibrating antagonistic tendons simultaneously could produce conflicting inputs, leaving position sense reliant on memory of position prior to vibration onset. We compared variability in position sense after different durations of such double vibration.

, 2007) Because Nkx2-1 is expressed by POA progenitors,

, 2007). Because Nkx2-1 is expressed by POA progenitors, Ku-0059436 cell line it is conceivable that the analysis of the derivatives of Nkx2-1-Cre mice includes cells not only derived from the MGE but also from other structures that express this gene, such as the POA. To circumvent this problem, we took advantage of the fact that the transcription factor Nkx5-1 is expressed by a rather small population of cells in the POA, but not in the MGE or any other structure in the telencephalon. Fate-mapping this population with Nkx5-1-Cre

revealed that the POA is the origin of a small population of multipolar GABAergic cells with an electrophysiological profile of rapidly adapting interneurons (Gelman et al., 2009). Interestingly, these cells express NPY and/or reelin (D. M. Gelman and O. Marín, unpublished observations) but none of the other markers of cortical interneurons, such as PV, SST, CR or VIP (Gelman et al., 2009). As such, these cells closely resemble those recently

identified as deriving from the CGE (Miyoshi et al., 2010), suggesting that both the POA and the CGE may contribute to this population of cortical interneurons. We have estimated that the Nkx5-1 lineage within the POA may contribute up to 4% of the entire population of cortical GABAergic interneurons. Is this small population of reelin/NPY-containing cells interneurons Selleckchem BIBF-1120 the only contribution of the POA to the complement of cortical GABAergic interneurons? Ongoing studies in our laboratory suggest that this is not the case. For example, fate-mapping analysis of a different population of POA cells with Dbx1-Cre mice indicates that this region may also give rise to some PV- and SST-containing cortical interneurons (D. M. Gelman, A. Griveau, C. Varela, R. Pla, A. Teissier, A. Pierani and O. Marín, unpublished observations). This result would be consistent with the hypothesis outlined above, that a small fraction of PV- and SST-containing interneurons either develop independently of Lhx6 function, and initial estimations suggest that they may represent another ∼5% of the cortical interneurons.

Although further studies would be required to determine the entire contribution of the POA to the generation of cortical interneuron diversity, our results so far suggest that this region may generate ∼8–10% of the cortical GABAergic interneurons. As for the CGE, our knowledge of the mechanisms controlling the development of POA-derived interneurons is very limited. Interestingly, our results suggest that this small progenitor region gives rise to a small but very diverse population of interneurons, including at least PV-, SST- and reelin/NPY-containing cells. This suggests that the mechanisms controlling cell-fate specification may have features which are common to MGE and CGE. Recent studies have made important progress in our understanding of the origin of cortical interneurons.

e nucleus raphe magnus, nucleus raphe dorsalis and locus coerule

e. nucleus raphe magnus, nucleus raphe dorsalis and locus coeruleus).

This possibility is supported by the observation that omnidirectional pause neurons (OPNs), which may modulate arousal in orienting subsystems such as the saccade generator (Optican, 2008), stop discharging during sleep (Henn et al., 1984). Further, OPN inactivation produces slower saccades (Kaneko, 1973). Consistent with this idea, increased TOT led to increased subjective Palbociclib perception of sleepiness (SSS) in the current study (Table 2). Increased air traffic density is one of the top five factors leading to poor ATC operator performance (Durso & Manning, 2008). Here we manipulated air traffic density to induce different levels of TC. Subjective and behavioral results confirmed our manipulations: higher traffic density (i.e. higher TC) led to slower RTs, more detection errors and higher levels of perceived exertion (Table 3). The above notwithstanding, increased TC did not impact (micro)saccadic or drift

dynamics our current experiment. Previous studies have found that increased TC affects saccadic dynamics (Galley & Andres, 1996; Di Stasi et al., 2010a,b, 2011) and microsaccadic rates (Pastukhov & Braun, 2010; Benedetto et al., 2011), albeit with inconsistent results. The difference between current and former

MDV3100 clinical trial results may be due partly to the presence of one or more secondary tasks (simultaneous to the participants’ primary task) in many of the previous experiments (Di Stasi et al., 2010a,b; Benedetto et al., 2011). Whatever the reason for the lack of effects of TC in our study, it is worth noting that it applied to both saccades and microsaccades, thereby lending additional support to the hypothesis that saccades and microsaccades share a common generator (Zuber et al., 1965; Otero-Millan et al., 2008, 2011; Rolfs et al., 2008; Engbert, 2012). To our knowledge, no previous research has investigated the effect of TC on drift. In our experiment, variations in TOT but not TC modulated PtdIns(3,4)P2 fixational and saccadic eye movement parameters. The dissociation of TOT and TC effects is important, as it satisfies several neuroergonomics criteria to establish an ideal measure of attentional state in applied settings (Parasuraman & Rizzo, 2007). Briefly, the main requirements of such an attentional measure (in our case, eye-movement based) are (Luximon & Goonetilleke, 2001): (i) sensitivity: it should detect significant variations in attentional levels; (ii) noninvasiveness: it should not interfere with the primary task; and (iii) selectivity: it should be immune to other variables.

, 2006) Plant pathogenic oomycetes appear to have evolved a prot

, 2006). Plant pathogenic oomycetes appear to have evolved a protein translocation system similar to malaria, which involves secreted proteins possessing an RxLR motif located after the signal peptide sequence (Bhattacharjee et al., 2006; Birch et al., 2006; Haldar et al., 2006; Whisson et al., 2007; Dou et al., 2008b). It was found that the RxLR motif is required for translocating these proteins into the host cells of infected plants (Whisson et al., 2007; Dou et al., 2008a). Bioinformatic analysis has shown that over 500 putative RxLR effectors are found in the potato pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora

infestans, and similarly, hundreds more in other plant pathogenic oomycetes (Whisson et al., 2007; Haas et al., 2009; Tyler, 2009). GW-572016 solubility dmso It was demonstrated that the oomycete RxLR motif is functional in Plasmodium, where it can direct an RxLR–GFP fusion protein from the parasite into the host erythrocyte (Bhattacharjee et al., 2006). The PEXEL motif is also functional in P. infestans as it is able to translocate an avirulent chimaeric PEXEL-PiAvr3 protein into PiAvr3-recognizing potato plants (Grouffaud et al., 2008). Replacement of the N-terminal region of the effector protein PsAvr1b with a PEXEL motif SB203580 containing leader sequences of three Plasmodium effectors resulted in the translocation of chimaeric

PsAvr1b into the Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase soybean cytoplasm (Dou et al., 2008a). Before detailed molecular interaction studies between Saprolegnia and fish can be performed, it is essential to develop a suitable infection model. The ami-momi treatment

established, which involves shaking fish in a net for approximately 2 min to remove part of the mucosal layer and subsequently challenging with Saprolegnia zoospores (Hatai & Hoshiai, 1993), is a good method to characterize the virulence of S. parasitica strains (Stueland et al., 2005). However, it is not a suitable model to study the early cellular and molecular infection mechanisms and events. In order to study these in more detail, the development of a fish cell-line infection assay is necessary. Here, we describe the identification and molecular characterization of a putative effector protein, SpHtp1, containing an RxLR motif. Microscopic studies of a Saprolegnia–fish interaction using an in vitro system involving a rainbow trout cell line showed that SpHtp1 is translocated into the fish cells, also when applied exogenously. A Saprolegnia parasitica isolate CBS223.65, obtained from the Centraal Bureau voor Schimmelcultures (CBS), the Netherlands, was grown on potato dextrose agar (Fluka) for 5 days at 18 °C, before inoculation in pea broth (125 g L−1 frozen peas, autoclaved, filtered through cheese cloth, volume adjusted to 1 L and autoclaved again) and incubation for 2 days at 24 °C. To accomplish S.

The secondary immunogenicity endpoints

had the same defin

The secondary immunogenicity endpoints

had the same definitions, but the MN assay was used in a subset of 33% randomly selected samples. Safety endpoints were divided into localized irritation (injection-site pain, erythema and swelling) and systemic reactions (fever, fatigue, headaches and anorexia). They were self-recorded in diaries for 7 days post-immunization. All serious adverse events (SAEs) were actively searched for and if present followed up until their resolution; recording selleck chemical stopped on 28 February 2010 when the study was officially concluded. The potential influence of the vaccine on the underlying disease activity was also evaluated. HIV RNA levels were measured prior to the first and 4 weeks after the second vaccination in 2009; in 2010 these measurements were performed before and 4 weeks after the single immunization. Individuals with elevated post-immunization HIV RNA levels were contacted for a subsequent HIV RNA determination as part of standard care. Quantitative plasma HIV-1 Olaparib concentration RNA (viral load) was measured on a Roche COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test version 2.0 (COBAS AmpliPrep; Roche Diagnostic, Basel, Switzerland). A significant increase in viral load was defined

as either any detectable HIV RNA in previously aviraemic patients or an increase of ≥1 log10 copies/mL in individuals with detectable baseline HIV RNA levels. As a consequence of

the lack of conclusive data concerning the immunogenicity of AS03-adjuvanted influenza A/09/H1N1 vaccines at the time of the study design, sample size was based on our single-centre recruitment capacity. Differences in antibody titres between groups were described by the GMT and corresponding 95% confidence interval. The reverse cumulative distributions were obtained by plotting antibody levels on a logarithmic scale on the horizontal axis and the percentage of subjects 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase having attained at least that level of antibody on the vertical axis. The comparison of titres between individual strata of categorical variables was assessed by means of the Kruskal–Wallis test. The association between continuous factors and antibody titre was described using the Spearman correlation coefficient. Multivariate regression models were constructed to investigate the association between specific independent variables and post-vaccination antibody titres. Variables with a P-value of <0.25 in the univariate analysis were introduced to the multivariate regression model. As the distribution of titres was not Gaussian, data were logarithmically transformed prior to analysis. The normality of the residuals was confirmed using the Shapiro–Wilks test.

Also, Google and PubMed searches were conducted using combination

Also, Google and PubMed searches were conducted using combinations of searching keywords “Malaysia,”“jellyfish,”“Irukandji,”“fatal,” and “near fatal. Where possible, diagnoses of “chirodropid box jellyfish sting” and “Irukandji syndrome” were made by standard clinical definitions previously used in this journal.2 Three fatalities from jellyfish stings were reported in Malaysia since 2000 (locations shown in Figure 1). A 45-year-old Swedish female tourist died after being stung by a jellyfish while taking an evening swim off a beach in Langkawi. She suddenly

shrieked with pain and became unconscious within seconds. Lesions, reportedly consistent with a chirodropid sting, were visible on her legs. She was immediately taken ashore where cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was commenced. Her husband reported that an ambulance arrived 15 minutes later and the paramedics confirmed that she had been stung by a jellyfish.12 An 8-year-old South RO4929097 in vivo Korean girl was reported to have died after a jellyfish sting at Palau Sapi, near Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. She had lesions on both legs and collapsed within Navitoclax clinical trial seconds and died shortly thereafter.10 The lesions described were consistent with chirodropid lesions (photograph not available). However, photographs of lesions on another

child at Palau Sapi 1 month later showed a pattern typical of a multi-tentacled box jellyfish, indicating that chirodropid jellyfish occur in the area.11 A 26-year-old male tourist from Brunei reportedly died after a jellyfish sting at Palau Pangkor. He and several friends were stung and he collapsed and died on the way to hospital. The death was reported to be from an “anaphylactic reaction” to the sting.9 A 44-year-old female British Dimethyl sulfoxide tourist. The wound (Figure 2), together with the accompanying description, is typical of a chirodropid envenomation, such as from Chironex

spp. The sea was calm, there were high tides, and the water was cloudy. As the victim walked from the sea she felt a light gripping sensation to her lower legs and knees. Within seconds she could not breathe or talk properly, and felt unwell. Transparent blue/gray/purple tentacles were stuck to her lower legs. After staggering a few meters she fell onto the sand, overcome by severe leg pains. Briefly everywhere felt painful, and then localized to excruciating pains in her lower legs. She reported dyspnoea and had a sore (not tight) chest. There was a period of altered (reduced) consciousness, after which she again became aware of leg pains and noticed the lifeguards applying ice. Sitting up caused a feeling of faintness. When told she had been stung by a box jellyfish she expressed disbelief as she had no warning of their potential presence (although a lifeguard later told another tourist that they occurred there). She elected to return to her hotel rather than hospital but had to be taken by wheelchair, as she could barely walk.

“To examine the relationship, potential associations, and

“To examine the relationship, potential associations, and determine the population attributable risk percent (PAR%) between obesity BYL719 in vivo and arthritis in Canadians aged 40 to 79 from 1994 to 2006. Our study population were the 17 276 respondents in the Canadian National Population Longitudinal Health Survey data, from 1994/1995

to 2006/2007. Respondents who were overweight and obese increased over time, with arthritis increasing from 20% to 30% over the study period. Women reported a 10% higher prevalence of arthritis than men. Men aged 70–79 and women aged 60–69 were most likely to report arthritis. PAR% calculations indicated that 3.8% of arthritis in 1994 and 7.5% in 2006 in the overall population could be attributed to overweight, while the proportion of arthritis attributable

ICG-001 datasheet to obesity increased from 7.0% in 1994 to 10.2% in 2006. Increasing overweight/obesity of the population was positively associated with arthritis in Canada for both sexes. In addition to the many other beneficial health effects, reducing levels of excess weight may result in either less arthritis or fewer manifestations of symptoms of arthritis or both. “
“Aim:  To develop genomic signatures of seven cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), or systemic scleroderma (SSc) that could potentially help identify patients likely to respond to therapies that target these individual cytokines. Methods:  Over-expressed transcripts in the whole blood (WB) were identified from 262 SLE, 44 DM, 33 PM, 38 SSc and 89 RA subjects and compared to 24 healthy subjects using Affymetrix arrays. Cytokine-inducible gene signatures such as type I interferon (IFN), tumor necrosis factor Amrubicin alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, and granulosyte–macrophage colony-stimulating

factor (GM-CSF) were assessed in the WB of these subjects to identify subpopulations showing activation of specific cytokine pathways. Results:  Significant activation of the type I IFN pathway in a population of five diseases studied was universally observed. The TNF-α and IL-1β pathways were activated in subgroups of PM and RA subjects, respectively, with another subgroup of RA subjects showing activation of the IL-13 pathway. The GM-CSF pathway was activated in a subgroup of SSc subjects and the IL-17 pathway was activated in subgroups of all diseases except SLE. Conclusions:  A novel gene expression measurement of activated cytokines in five different rheumatic diseases is presented. Characterizing the cytokine pathways most activated in specific patient subpopulations has the potential to help target the appropriate patient populations for corresponding anti-cytokine therapies. “
“The REgistry of Pulmonary Hypertension Associated with Rheumatic Disease (REOPARD) was established in Korea.