The sequenced strain of S.
meliloti Rm1021 displays reduced biofilm formation on the microplate assay when grown in a rich medium compared with minimal medium (Fujishige et al., 2005). A nutritionally limited environment promotes learn more the transition from a planktonic to a sessile mode of life. Biofilm formation may therefore represent a strategy for survival of bacteria in nutritionally limited environments, because colonization of surfaces provides certain advantages, for example increased capture of nutrients that can be absorbed from the medium (Wimpenny & Colasanti, 1997). In contrast, nutrient abundance in the medium seems to favor biofilm formation in Pseudomonas (O’Toole & Kolter, 1998b; Yousef-Coronado et al., 2008), possibly by increasing bacterial population size and accumulation of autoinducers, which promote biofilm formation. In view of previous findings that the nutrient content of the growth medium regulates the development of biofilms by Pseudomonas species (O’Toole & Kolter, 1998a, b), the effects of various nutrients and environmental conditions on the biofilm formation ability of S. meliloti were tested (Rinaudi et al., 2006). The concentrations of sucrose, NVP-BKM120 purchase phosphate, and calcium were
positively correlated with biofilm formation, whereas extreme temperatures and pH values had a negative effect. These findings support the hypothesis that biofilm formation promotes the survival of non-spore-forming rhizobia in soil in the absence of a legume host. The key regulatory pathways in S. meliloti biofilm formation have been identified. The exoR and exoS–chvI two-component system controls many phenotypes, including biofilm formation. Wells et al. (2007) showed that this system affects succinoglycan production, prototrophy, nitrogen fixation, and motility, and also regulates attachment to abiotic surfaces. The exoR95 and exoS96 mutants showed a considerably increased biofilm formation, compared with the wild-type or the other strains tested. Rhizobium nod genes, and their products, Nod
factors, are essential for the development of nitrogen-fixing nodules on legume roots (Lerouge et al., 1990). Microscopic analysis revealed that Nod factors are critical for the establishment of a mature rhizobial biofilm (Fujishige et al., 2008). This is a new function for Nod factors, and is distinct Buspirone HCl from their established role as a morphogen-inducing legume nodule development. The dual functions of Nod factors, as structural components in biofilms and independently as precursors of host-specific morphogens, imply the existence of two different sets of control mechanisms, one dependent on flavonoids (plant-derived inducers of nod genes in S. meliloti) and the other independent of flavonoids, which regulate Nod factor production (Fujishige et al., 2008). Bacteria have various mechanisms for movement, including flagellar swimming, swarming, twitching, and gliding motility.