For developing, these composites, the hydrogel matrices are synth

For developing, these composites, the hydrogel matrices are synthesized first by polymerizing ON-01910 inhibitor acrylamide in the presence of poly(vinyl sulfonic acid sodium salt) and a trifunctional crosslinker (2,4,6-triallyloxy 1,3,5-triazine, TA) using redox initiating system (ammonium persulphate/TMEDA). Silver nanoparticles are generated throughout the hydrogel networks using in situ method by incorporating the silver ions and subsequent reduction with sodium borohydride. Curcumin loading into hydrogel-silver nanoparticles composite is achieved by diffusion mechanism. A series of hydrogel-silver nanoparticle-curcumin composites are developed and are characterized by using Fourier transform

infrared (FTIR) and UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses, as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopic (SEM/TEM) methods. An interesting arrangement of silver nanoparticles i.e., a shining sun shape (ball) (similar to 5 nm) with apparent smaller grown nanoparticles (similar to 1 nm) is observed by TEM. The curcumin loading and release characteristics are performed for various hydrogel composite

systems. A comparative antimicrobial study is performed for hydrogel-silver nanocomposites and hydrogel-silver nanoparticle-curcumin composites. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 121: 784-796, 2011″
“Study Design. In vitro biomechanical study.

Objective. To measure the effect that off-axis vertebral loading has on the stiffness and failure load of vertebrae.

Summary of Background Data. Adjacent level vertebral fractures not only are common in patients who received a vertebroplasty treatment but also selleck screening library occur in patients with conservatively DMXAA Angiogenesis inhibitor treated wedge fractures. The wedge-like deformity, which is present in both groups, changes the spinal alignment. The load of vertebrae adjacent to the fractured vertebra will change

from perpendicular to the endplate to a more shearing, off-axis, load. This change may induce a higher fracture risk for vertebrae adjacent to wedge-like deformed vertebrae.

Methods. Twenty vertebrae, harvested from one osteopenic cadaver spine and three osteoporotic cadaver spines, were loaded until failure. The vertebrae were loaded either perpendicular to the upper endplate, representing vertebrae in a spine without wedge fractures (0 degrees group, n = 10), or at an angle of 20 degrees, representing vertebrae adjacent to a wedge fracture (20 degrees groups, n = 10). Vertebral failure load and stiffness were the most important outcome measures.

Results. The failure load was significantly higher (P = 0.028) when tested at 0 degrees (2854 N, SD = 622 N), compared with vertebrae tested at 20 degrees (2162 N, SD = 670 N). Vertebrae were also significantly stiffer (P < 0.001) when tested at 0 degrees (4017 N/mm, SD = 970 N/mm) than those tested at 20 degrees (2478 N/mm, SD = 453 N/mm).


A series of synthetic C-substituted DIMs (C-DIMs) analogs was dev

A series of synthetic C-substituted DIMs (C-DIMs) analogs was developed, including DIM-C-pPhtBu and DIM-C-pPhC(6)H(5), which exhibited better inhibitory activity in cancer cells than DIM. This study examined the effects of C-DIMs on the growth of human oral cancer cells. DIM-C-pPhtBu and DIM-C-pPhC(6)H(5) decreased the number of viable KB cells and induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. The apoptotic cell death was accompanied by a change in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and damage learn more to mitochondrial membrane potential through the induction

of death receptor 5 and the cleavage of Bid and caspase 8. Studies on the mechanism of action showed that the apoptotic cell death induced by DIM-C-pPhtBu and DIM-C-pPhC(6)H(5) was mediated by endoplasmic reticulum stress. In addition, C-DIMs inhibited cell proliferation and induced PARP cleavage through death receptor 5 and CHOP in HEp-2 and HN22 cells. This provides the first evidence that synthetic C-DIMs

originating from cruciferous vegetables induce apoptosis in human oral cancer cells through the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway. European Journal of Cancer Prevention 20:417-425 (C) 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Purpose of review

Although historically Marfan syndrome (MFS) has always been considered as this website a condition caused by the deficiency of a structural extracellular matrix protein, fibrillin-1, the study of Marfan mouse models and Marfan-related conditions has shifted our current understanding to a pathogenic model that involves dysregulation of the cytokine-transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling.

Recent findings

In this

review, we focus on the impact of the revised MFS clinical diagnostic criteria. We discuss lessons that have been learned from molecular findings in relevant Marfan-related conditions, such as sporadic thoracic aortic aneurysm/dissection, stiff skin syndrome, acromelic dysplasias and Loeys-Dietz syndrome. We explore the latest insights into the role of the alternative TGF-beta signaling pathways in MFS pathogenesis. Finally, we give an update on the current and future treatment strategies.


The recent insights into the pathogenesis of MFS and related disorders have offered a prime example of translational medicine with immediate bridge between molecular findings and therapeutic options.”
“In the absence of treatment, HIV-1 infection, usually starting with a single virion, leads inexorably to a catastrophic decline in the numbers of CD4(+) T cells and to AIDS, characterized by numerous opportunistic infections as well as other symptoms, including dementia and wasting. In the 30 years since the AIDS pandemic came to our attention, we have learned a remarkable amount about HIV-1, the responsible virus-the molecular details about how it functions and interacts with the host cell, its evolution within the host, and the counter-measures it has evolved to overcome host defenses against viral infection.

(C) 2009 American Institute of Physics [DOI: 10 1063/1 3067847]“

(C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3067847]“
“Twenty years of sky-high tuberculosis WH-4-023 price (TB) incidence rates and high TB mortality in high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence countries have so far not been matched by the same magnitude or breadth of responses as seen in malaria or HIV programmes. Instead, recommendations have been narrowly focused on people presenting to health facilities for investigation of TB symptoms, or for HIV testing and care. However, despite the recent major investment

and scale-up of TB and HIV services, undiagnosed TB remains highly prevalent at community level, implying that diagnosis of TB remains slow and incomplete. This maintains high transmission rates and exposes people living with HIV to high rates of morbidity and mortality.

More intensive use of TB screening, with broader definitions of target populations, expanded indications for screening both inside and outside of health facilities, and appropriate selection of new

diagnostic HSP990 molecular weight tools, offers the prospect of rapidly improving population-level control of TB. Diagnostic accuracy of suitable (high through-put) algorithms remains the major barrier to realising this goal.

In the present study, we review the evidence available to guide expanded TB screening in HIV-prevalent settings, ideally through combined TB-HIV interventions that provide screening for both TB and HIV, and maximise entry to HIV and TB care and prevention. Ideally, we would systematically test, treat and prevent TB and HIV comprehensively, offering both TB and HIV screening to all health facility attendees, TB households and HSP assay all adults

in the highest risk communities. However, we are still held back by inadequate diagnostics, financing and paucity of population-impact data. Relevant contemporary research showing the high need for potential gains, and pitfalls from expanded and intensified TB screening in high HIV prevalence settings are discussed in this review.”
“P>Pediatric sedation continues to change in terms of the professionals who provide this care, those who produce original research on this topic, guidelines and literature concerning risk, medications employed, and methods for training for new providers. Some of the changes could be categorized as ‘evolutionary’ or gradual in nature and predictable – such as the changing role of anesthesiologists in the field of pediatric sedation and the use of the well-established dissociative sedative, ketamine. Other changes in pediatric sedation are more radical or ‘revolutionary’. They include reconsideration of what is defined as an ‘adverse event’ during sedation, the use of propofol or dexmedetomidine, and the application of human patient simulation for training.


It is not known how often, to what ex


It is not known how often, to what extent and over what time frame any early warning scores change, and what the implications of these changes are.

Setting: Thunder Bay Regional Health Sciences Center, Ontario, Canada.

Methods: The averaged vital signs measured over different time periods of 44,531 consecutive acutely ill medical admissions were determined and then combined to calculate the averaged abbreviated version of the Vitalpac (TM) early warning score (AbEWS) during each time period examined.

Results: 18% of all in-hospital deaths within 30 days are in patients with a low AbEWS on admission. Those admitted with a low AbEWS are more likely to increase their score and those admitted Cl-amidine molecular weight with a high score are more likely to lower it. Paradoxically, patients who have an averaged

score over the first 6 h in hospital that is lower than on admission have increased in-hospital mortality. Thereafter check details patients with an increase in the averaged score have almost twice the mortality of those with a decreased score. 4.7% of patients have a low averaged score on the day they die.

Conclusion: AbEWS, without clinical judgment, cannot be used to detect those patients who do not need to be admitted to hospital or are suitable for discharge. A period of observation of at least 12 h is required before the trajectory of AbEWS is of prognostic value, and any “”improvement”" that occurs before this time may be illusory. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ardipusilloside I isolated from Ardisia pusilla on tumor angiogenesis and its mechanism of action. The anti-angiogenic effect

in vivo was evaluated on xenograft in the athymic mice model and the chicken chorioallantoic Crenigacestat price membrane (CAM) neovascularization model, the inhibition of growth in vitro was detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, and the mechanism was demonstrated through detecting microvessel density (MVD), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and P-VEGFR2 protein expressions, as well as mRNA expressions of VEGF and VEGFR2. The results showed that ardipusilloside I had a good inhibitory effect on A549 xenografted tumor growth, angiogenesis of CAM, and A549 cell growth. Compared to the negative control, MVD protein and mRNA expressions of VEGF and VEGFR were significantly inhibited by ardipusilloside I in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggested that ardipusilloside I might be a promising candidate as angiogenesis inhibitors.”
“Cymbopogon citratus has been widely recognised for its ethnobotanical and medicinal usefulness. Its insecticidal, antimicrobial and therapeutic properties have been reported, but little is known about its effect on the immune system.

Some psychometric tools of this kind are available in Chinese On

Some psychometric tools of this kind are available in Chinese. One of them is the Chinese Quality of Life questionnaire (ChQoL). It comprises 50 items, subdivided in 3 Domains and

13 Facets. The ChQoL was built from scratch on the basis of TCM theory. It is therefore specifically valuable for the TCM practitioner. This paper describes our translation into Italian of the ChQoL, its first application to Occidental oncological patients, and some of its psychometric properties.

Methods: a translation scheme, originally inspired by the TRAPD Panobinostat solubility dmso procedure, is developed. This scheme focuses on comprehensibility and clinical usefulness more than on linguistic issues alone. The translated questionnaire is tested on a sample of 203 consecutive female patients with breast cancer. Shapiro-Wilk normality tests, Fligner-Killeen median tests, exploratory Two-step Cluster Analysis, and Tukey’s test for non-additivity are applied to study the outcomes.

Results: an HSP990 concentration Italian translation is proposed. It retains the TCM characteristics of the original ChQoL, it is intelligible to Occidental patients who

have no previous knowledge of TCM, and it is useful for daily clinical practice. The score distribution is not Normal, and there are floor and ceiling effects. A Visual Analogue Scale is identified as a suitable choice. A 3-point Likert scale can also efficiently describe the data pattern. The original scales show non-additivity, but an Anscombe-Tukey transformation with gamma = 1.5 recovers additivity at the Domain level. Additivity is enhanced if different g are adopted for different Facets, except in one case.

Conclusions: the translated questionnaire can be adopted both as a filing system based on TCM and as a source of outcomes for clinical trials. A Visual Analogue Scale is recommended, but a simpler 3-point Likert scale also suitably fits data. When estimating missing data, and AC220 purchase when grouping items within Domain in order to build a summary Domain index, an Anscombe-Tukey transformation should be applied to the raw scores.”
“Aim: Modified placement of the Anterior Prolift

(TM) (MODAP) in patients with prolapse of the anterior and middle vaginal compartment is described. It was performed in order to achieve simultaneous tension-free correction of the anterior and middle vaginal compartment without excessive use of the mesh. Material and Methods: MODAP was performed in 32 patients. The anterior part of the mesh was placed transobturatorily. Surplus of the central part of the mesh was longitudinally divided and fixed around the cervix. Posterior mesh arms were passed through the sacrospinous ligament. All patients were analyzed regarding anatomy and symptoms 1 year after surgery. Results: Cure of pelvic organ prolapse was achieved in 28 of 32 (87.5%) patients. The position of Ba and C points was significantly corrected (p = 0.

Conclusion: The choice of anti-malarial drug should be an evidenc

Conclusion: The choice of anti-malarial drug should be an evidence-based decision that considers the profile of the individual traveller and the risk of malaria. Mefloquine is an important, first-line anti-malarial drug but it is crucial for prescribers to screen medical histories and inform mefloquine users of potential adverse events. Careful prescribing and observance of contraindications are essential. For some indications, there is currently no replacement for mefloquine available or in the pipeline.”
“It is proposed that post-harvest longevity and appearance of salad crops is closely linked to pre-harvest

leaf morphology signaling pathway (cell and leaf size) and biophysical structure (leaf strength). Transgenic lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa cv. Valeria) were produced in which the production of the cell wall-modifying enzyme xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) was down-regulated

by antisense inhibition. Independently transformed lines were shown to have multiple members of the LsXTH gene family down-regulated in mature leaves of 6-week-old plants and during the course of shelf life. Consequently, buy Compound Library xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) enzyme activity and action were down-regulated in the cell walls of these leaves and it was established that leaf area and fresh weight were decreased while leaf strength was increased in the transgenic 17DMAG mouse lines. Membrane permeability was reduced towards the end of shelf life in the transgenic lines relative to the controls and bacteria were evident inside the leaves of control plants only. Most importantly, an extended shelf-life of transgenic lines

was observed relative to the non-transgenic control plants. These data illustrate the potential for engineering cell wall traits for improving quality and longevity of salad crops using either genetic modification directly, or by using markers associated with XTH genes to inform a commercial breeding programme.”
“Wood-polymer composites (WPCs) were prepared from poplar wood (P. ussuriensis Komarov) in a two-step procedure. Maleic anhydride (MAN) was first dissolved in acetone and impregnated into wood; this was followed by a heat process; and then, glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and styrene (St) were further impregnated into the MAN-treated wood, followed by a second thermal treatment. Finally, the novel WPC was fabricated. The reactions occurring in the WPC, the aggregation of the resulting polymers, and their interaction with the wood substrate were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and dynamic mechanical analysis. The performance of WPC was also evaluated in terms of the mechanical properties and durability, which were then correlated with the structural analysis of the WPC.

Kurz titanium ossicular prostheses offer high biocompatibility an

Kurz titanium ossicular prostheses offer high biocompatibility and high stability with low complication rates in pediatric ossicular reconstruction. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Patients with traumatic brain

injury (TBI) and traumatic intracranial hemorrhage are frequently admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) but never require critical care interventions. Improved ICU triage in this patient population can improve resource utilization and decrease health care costs. We sought to identify a low-risk group of patients with TBI who do not require admission to an ICU.

Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study of adult patients with TBI and traumatic intracranial hemorrhage. The need for ICU admission check details was defined as the presence of a critical care intervention. Patients were considered low risk if there was no critical care intervention before hospital admission. Measured outcomes included delayed critical care interventions at 48 hours and during hospitalization, mortality, and emergency surgery.

Results: A total of 187 of 320 patients were considered low risk. In the low-risk group,

two patients (1.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1-3.8) had a delayed critical care intervention within 48 hours of admission and four patients (2.1%; 95% CI, 0.6-5.4) after 48 hours of admission. Two patients (1.1%; 95% CI, 0-3.8) in the low-risk group died. No patients in the low-risk group required neurosurgical intervention.

Conclusion: Patients with TBI without a critical care intervention before admission are at low risk for requiring future critical

care interventions. Future studies are required to validate if this low-risk criteria can serve as a safe, cost-effective triage tool for ICU admission.”
“Microencapsulation is a process by which tiny parcels of an active ingredient are packaged within a second material for the purpose of shielding the active ingredient from the surrounding environment. This study aims to determine the ability of the microencapsulation technique to improve the viability of Trichoderma harzianum UPM40 originally isolated from healthy groundnut roots as effective biological control Linsitinib agents (BCAs). Alginate was used as the carrier for controlled release, and montmorillonite clay (MMT) served as the filler. The encapsulated Ca-alginate-MMT beads were characterised using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The FTIR results showed the interaction between the functional groups of alginate and MMT in the Ca-alginate-MMT beads. Peaks at 1595, 1420 and 1020 cm(-1) characterised alginate, and peaks at 1028 and 453 cm(-1) characterised MMT; both sets of peaks appeared in the Ca-alginate-MMT FTIR spectrum. The TGA analysis showed an improvement in the thermal stability of the Ca-alginate-MMT beads compared with the alginate beads alone.

The objective of this study was to analyze clinical,

The objective of this study was to analyze clinical,

check details biochemical, and imaging characteristics; management strategies; and outcomes of EAS patients.

Method: We screened the records (1993-2012) of ACTH-dependent endogenous hypercortisolism cases managed at a tertiary care center.

Results: Of the 218 patients, 17 were diagnosed with EAS. The median 8:00 am serum cortisol was 36 mu g/dL (11.4-82.7 mu g/dL), and the median basal plasma ACTH was 156 pg/mL (53.5-468 pg/mL). Notably, ACTH levels below 100 pg/mL were found in 4 patients. Suspicious microadenoma was found on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary in 5 patients, and all of them underwent transsphenoidal surgery (TSS). Inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS) was performed in 8 patients, and the results were suggestive

of a peripheral source in all 8. Computed tomography (CT) localized the lesion in 15/17 patients. In 2 patients with negative CTs, gallium DOTATATE positron emission tomography (PET) scans localized the lesion. Despite difficulties localizing bronchial carcinoids, the cure rate was high (72%). In contrast, thymic carcinoids were easily localized but had poor outcomes.

Conclusion: EAS cannot be ruled out on the basis of marginally elevated ACTH. In cases with an equivocal MRI pituitary finding, prior IPSS can help avoid unnecessary TSS. CT is a useful modality for localization JQEZ5 cell line of an ectopic source. Functional imaging may help in cases where anatomical imaging fails.”
“The binding of prorenin to the ( pro) renin receptor triggers

2 major pathways: a nonproteolytic conformational change in prorenin to its active form ( angiotensin II-dependent pathway) and an intracellular pathway via the ( pro) renin receptor Fer-1 manufacturer itself ( angiotensin II-independent pathway). In diabetic animals, an increased plasma prorenin level not only causes the generation of angiotensin II via the angiotensin II-dependent pathway, it also stimulates the ( pro) renin receptor’s own intracellular signaling pathway in a manner that is independent of the generated angiotensin II. Thus, the administration of a “”handle”" region peptide ( HRP), which acts as a decoy peptide and competitively inhibits the binding of prorenin to the ( pro) renin receptor, has a beneficial effect in the kidneys of diabetic animals with low plasma renin levels. However, the benefits of HRP are slightly reduced in animal models of essential hypertension with relatively high plasma renin levels, and these benefits disappear altogether in animal models of hypertension with extremely high plasma renin levels. Thus, in the kidneys of animal models of diabetes and/or hypertension, both renin and prorenin competitively bind to the ( pro) renin receptor and contribute to the pathophysiology of nephropathy.

Despite the advent of many fixation methods, the use of iliac scr

Despite the advent of many fixation methods, the use of iliac screws seems most favorable so far. Various lengths of iliac screws are applied in surgical treatments; however, no biomechanical comparison has been reported based on the screw length.

Methods. For anatomic observation, CT scan data of 60 Chinese adults were used to measure the details check details of the iliac spine structures. For biomechanical evaluation, 7 adult human cadavers

(L3-pelvis) were observed. L4-S1 pedicle screw fixation was performed with posterior spinal fixation system. On the basis of the lengths of iliac screws, 2 groups were tested (short screw group using 70 mm screws and long screw group using 138 mm screws). In this study, short and long iliac screws were placed in the same specimen. Biomechanical testing was performed on a material testing machine under 800 N compression and 7 Nm torsion

loading modes for stiffness evaluations. Finally, pullout testing was performed for all the iliac screws to measure the maximum pullout force.

Results. The length of the line between posterior superior iliac spine and anterior Vorinostat inferior iliac spine was 140.6 +/- 1.1 mm, and the distance between this line and the greater sciatic notch was 18.3 +/- 0.8 mm. The length of the line between posterior superior iliac spine and the second narrowest point was 67.1 +/- 0.62 mm in men and 70.1 +/- 1.4 mm in women. Insertion lengths of the short and long iliac screws were 70 +/- 2 mm and 138 +/- 4 mm, respectively. The lumbo-pelvic reconstruction using short and long iliac screws restored 53.3% +/- 13.6% and 57.6% +/- 16.2% of the initial stiffness in compression testing respectively. In torsion testing, the use of short and long iliac screws harvested 55.1% +/- 11.9% and 62.5% +/- 9.2% of the initial stiffness, respectively. No significant difference was detected between the 2 reconstructions in terms of compressive and torsional stiffness (P > buy CX-6258 0.05). However, the

maximum pullout strength of long iliac screw group was significantly higher than the short screw group (P < 0.05).

Conclusion. The local stability is rather difficult to be restored to the original levels regardless the length of iliac screws. Obviously, long iliac screws resisted significantly greater axial pullout force. However, under physiologic, torsional, and compressive loading conditions, the mechanical stability of lumbo-pelvic fixation construct with short iliac screws was comparable with that of the long ones. Therefore, the use of short iliac screws, which are only about half the length of the long iliac screws, could reduce the implantation risk without significantly compromising on the stability of the construct.”
“Background: There is an inverse association between body mass and mortality in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Beta-blockers have been associated with weight gain. We wanted to examine the relation between beta-blocker use and weight in a population of patients with CHF.

“In trees, water and sugars are transported by xylem and p

“In trees, water and sugars are transported by xylem and phloem conduits which are hydraulically linked. A simultaneous study of both flows is interesting, since they concurrently influence important processes such as stomatal regulation and growth. A few mathematical models have already been developed to investigate the influence of both hydraulically coupled flows. However, none of these models has so far been tested using real measured field data. In the present study, a comprehensive whole-tree model is developed that enables simulation of the stem diameter

variations driven by both the water and sugar transport. Stem diameter variations are calculated as volume changes of both the xylem and the phloem tissue.

These volume changes are dependent on: (i) water transport according to the cohesion-tension theory; (ii) sugar transport according to the Munch hypothesis; (iii) loading and unloading of sugars; and (iv) irreversible turgor-driven growth. The model considers three main compartments (crown, stem, and roots) and is verified by comparison with actual measured stem diameter variations and xylem sap flow rates. These measurements were performed on a young oak (Quercus robur L.) tree in controlled conditions and on an adult beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) tree in a natural forest. A good agreement was found between simulated and measured data. Hence, the model seemed to be a realistic representation of the processes observed in reality. Furthermore, selleck chemical the model is able to simulate

several physiological variables which are relatively difficult to measure: phloem turgor, phloem osmotic pressure, and Munch’s counterflow. Simulation of these variables revealed daily dynamics in their behaviour which were mainly induced by transpiration. Some of these dynamics are experimentally confirmed in the literature, while others are not.”
“Study Design. In vivo and in vitro model. Objective. Investigate soft-tissue inflammation caused by rhBMP-2.

Summary of Background Data. Although rhBMP-2 produces excellent rates of fusion in the spine, dysphagia and respiratory compromise have occurred when used in the neck. The mechanism of the swelling selleck chemicals llc and inflammatory response has yet to be fully elucidated.

Methods. ELISA kits (IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha) were used to measure cytokine levels at different concentrations of rhBMP-2. Absorbable collagen sponges were implanted with or without different concentrations of rhBMP-2 into the backs of rats subcutaneously (SC) and intramuscularly (IM). Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure inflammation at 3 hours and 2, 4, and 7 days. The inflammatory volumes were measured and compared using MIPAV software. Rats were killed after 7 days and studied.

Results. IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-alpha release was dose-dependent.